Richard Schechner And New Theatre Essay, Research Paper
Richard Schechner envisions a ?new theatre? in three of his major essays,
Happenings? (1966). Six Axioms for Environmental Theatre? (1968), and
Negotiations with the Environment? (1968). He does not spend time
discussing his famed ?not not themselves? ideology of the performer or
ritual ecstasy; instead he discusses a new genealogical hybrid termed the ?new
theatre? by Allan Kaprow. Schechner uses the traditional theatre as a
comparison and first comments in ?Happenings. because it is unlike
traditional theatre, the familiar locutions of these arts, e.g. dance, music,
sculpture, painting cannot describe what?s going on or provide criteria for
which to evaluate it? (145). Still, Schechner does provide many a comparison
between the traditional theatre and this new form. Schechner recognizes that the
theatrical event is a complex social interweave, a network of expectation and
obligation. The exchange of stimuli?either sensory or ideational or both?is
the root of theatre? (158). Knowing this, the author claims all theatre, both
traditional and new, is a set of related ?transactions? (changes in outlook
and situation). How these transactions occur is what defines the art form. For
example the traditional theatre ?works from an organic system of correlations
concerning character, story, and locale. Likewise, Susanne K. Langer states,
traditional theatre ?runs on a continuum of past and future as parts. (147)
organic parts developing the situation. It involves a series of
understandable transactions. However, the new theatre lacks this destiny of
time. There the referents to everyday life are purely functions of sounds,
textures, and images? (147). Schechner basically breaks down all the major
components of the traditional theatre in a comparison with the new theatre. To
start, the traditional theatre involves plot as a means of telling a story, but
the new theatre involves images/events. There are three kinds of new theatre as
Schechner describes in ?Happenings. the technological, essentially
electronic event (a la John Cage concerts), the free-for-all happenings or party
gone wild in which the event is roughly sketched by the author, a group of
people are told to do something and another group is invited to
watch/participate, and the ?ceremony? (a la Kaprow) in which the
participants are given a set of instructions which they are not to improvise on
but simply do. All three kinds share autonomy and revitalization.
Disconnections are made so that the isolated event or image can be seen in
itself, seen as revitalized? (154). Schechner points out that the traditional
theatre is action whereas the new theatre is about activity. In ?Negotiations
with the Environment? he further makes the distinction that the activity is
usually ?self-documentational? (197). As well the traditional theatre
supports resolution, however the new theatre thrives on open-ended ness. For
this reason. shows tend to be often unrepeated and unrepeatable? (147)–
for how can you repeat something that will give you a very different result.
Likewise, the traditional theatre revolves around themes/thesis, however in new
theatre there is no pre-set meaning. When audiences exist they are left to
themselves to put together or make sense out of what?s happening? (148).
Therefore, the meaning can be almost anything, and everyone will most certainly
have a different impression. The traditional theatre is oriented around roles;
the actor is the most important figure. He ?becomes? a human being other
than himself? (149). The new theatre, on the contrary, is task oriented.
People are themselves simply doing something. Their job is not to build roles or
circumstances in which they are ?justified? (149). This lends itself to
intermedia performances in which ?the production elements need no longer
support a performance? (163). At certain times these elements are more
important than the performers and so a new term ?performing technicians?
(163) is created. The performers are then free to be treated ?as mass and
volume, color and texture, and movement?not as ?actors? but as parts of
the environment? (178). Like the set and text, they are a part of the piece,
not taking focus, but just facilitating. Schechner points out that the
traditional theatre revolves around a stage, which is not necessarily true of
the new theatre. The new theatre tries to reach beyond the boundaries of space.
Allan Kaprow is quoted in ?Negotiations with the Environment as saying. it
doesn?t make any difference how large the space is, it?s still a stage.
It?s pretty comfortable working in the middle, but as soon as you get to the
edges you have to stop, I didn?t feel like stopping? (181). Schechner, then,
in ?Axioms of the Environmental Theatre. spends much time on two specific
axioms referring to Kaprow?s edges. all space is used for performance?
and ?the theatrical event can take place in totally transformed space or found
space. Schechner remarks that in ?traditional theatre a ?special place?
is marked off within the theatre for performance, but in new theatre the space
is organically defined by the action? (165-6). Once one gives up fixed
seating and the bifurcation of space, entirely new relationships are possible?
(167) fostering a sense of shared experience among the group This experience can
be achieved through transformed space in which the participants, using whatever
materials are available and placing them wherever form the unplanned set (171)
where the action will take place or something called found space. Found space
involves the given elements of any space?its architecture, textural qualities,
acoustics, and so on are to be explored. The random ordering of space is valid.
The function of scenery, if used, is to point up not disguise or transform the
space. Lastly, the spectator may suddenly create new special possibilities
(172-3). Some have considered Freedom Marches examples of found spaces.
Schechner states in his ?Negotiations with the Environment. a found
space was interesting; found people were found alive? (186). So then is the
traditional theatre found dead?–Perhaps dead in terms of new energies. In the
traditional theatre the actors go by a script and the result is a product,
however in the new theatre it?s free form, a process, one specific idea
isn?t beaten to death. The text need not be the starting point (axiom 6).
You don?t do the play; you do with it?confront it, search among the words
and themes, build around and through it. and come out with your own thing?
(180). Whereas the traditional theatre places emphasis on flow and clarity, the
new theatre can be tangential and, somewhat chaotic, exploring many facets at
once, creating something entirely ?new. Similarly, the traditional theatre
is single focused, showing the audience where they should cast their gaze. This
is not true of the new theatre where, according to axiom four, the ?focus is
flexible and variable? (175). Multi-focus will not reach every spectator in
the same way? (175). Again, the spectator is free to interpret what?s going
on. As well, using local focus only a fraction of the audience can see or hear.
However. real body contact and whispered communication are possible between
the performer and spectator? (176). Local whirlpools of action make the
theatrical line more complex and varied. The last comparison Schechner makes
between the two forms of theatre involves the audience. In traditional theatre
the audience watches, but in new theatre the audience participates or is
non-existent. Environmental theatre involves the art of participation, a
celebration of sorts (184). For Schechner and many others it can be a spiritual
journey in which all involved share the idea that if people would see again,
feel again?not as they did in the historic past, but as each one of us did as
a child?then things would get better (155). There are the ritual elements that
comprise Schechner?s work in Between Theatre and Anthropology. Is the new
theatre, then, more spiritual than the traditional theatre? That is not for me
to decide but for those involved. Certainly, the new theatre fosters new
involvements and new ideas?variations on space, time, and focus. Yet, we
cannot judge which is better for they are two very different art forms. The
theatre world is enhanced and enriched by new developments like the ?new?
theatre. Hopefully, both will be around for a very long time.
Alexander Hamilton's Poltical Philosophy
This country was shaped by many great men, with one simple idea of being able to live free lives and make their own choices. One of these men was Alexander Hamilton, who helped create a new political idea that he, and his colleagues, called Federalism. This system was one of the shaping forces of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence, which proved to be the roots of America’s political system. The purpose of this paper is to explain Hamilton’s idea of Federalism, and how it is still in affect today.
Alexander Hamilton grew up in what was called the “new world”. He arrived here an “impoverished immigrant” and by the age of 17, he was already taking orders from General George Washington in the Continental Army as a Lieutenant Colonel. After the defeat of the British and the winning of freedom in America, Hamilton joined Washington, and other great political thinkers in drawing up a government. They did so by drawing up a loosely interpreted Articles of Confederation which only held out as long as possible until the Constitutional Convention when Congress finally agreed that a new Constitution was needed for the country. Around October 1787, The Federalist appeared in the New York Post. The Federalist was a series of papers about the government written under the penname Publius. The true authors of these publications were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Hamilton wrote over 50 however, which was two-thirds of the papers published (Brookhiser, 63). The papers also talked about a form of government where the central government would be very powerful, and the states just part of the
government. Federalism was only a state of mind at this point, pretty much.
. middle of paper.
. ments to regulate things. Federalism is essential in running a proper democracy without having a centralized government with complete power.
This theory worked, for the most part, in the U.S. for about 100 years, until the states started to gain more power, and the theory failed. The Constitution is a Federalist document in many ways, but by powers of the Amendments, the power has shifted quite evenly to the states and the government now. Alexander Hamilton received influence from many political philosophers, including Locke, and Rousseau, using their teachings in his idea. By doing this, he became a political philosopher in his own respect.
Brookhiser, Richard. Alexander Hamilton- American. Free Press, New York. 1999
Miller, John C. The Federalist Era. Harper, New York. 1960
Schachner, Nathan. Alexander Hamilton. Barnes, New York. 1946
Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paperClick the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper
Essay about Alexander Hamilton's "Federalist no. 78" - In Federalist no. 78 Hamilton explains the powers and duties of the judiciary department as developed in Article III of the Constitution. Article III of the Constitution is very vague on the structure of the federal courts. Hamilton had to convince Americans that the federal courts would not run amok. He presented that the federal courts would not have unlimited power but that they would play a vital role in the constitutional government. Hamilton limited judiciary power by defining it as a text-bound interpretative power. [tags: Alexander Hamilton, Federalist no. 78, USA, histor]
Alexander Hamilton Essay - “[T]he man on the ten-dollar bill is the father of the American treasury system, a signer of the Constitution, one of the primary authors of the Federalist Papers, and the loser of the infamous duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton's earlier career as a Continental Army officer is less well known. Yet Hamilton's first experience in public service is important, not only because it was the springboard to his later career, but because it also deeply influenced his values and thinking” (Hamilton). [tags: Alexander Hamilton Biography ]
. 5 Works Cited
Alexander Hamilton: Triumph and Tragedies Essay - Alexander Hamilton:Triumphs and Tragedies To die a tragic death by the hand of another man- to carve ones way through destiny and shape one's future from the humblest of beginnings- to forge a legacy by a medium only those heralded as our countries "Forefathers" have per chanced to meddle with- these are the makings and the foundations for which great men and the dreams of our country rely upon. Everyone has heard the name Alexander Hamilton, but few are familiar with his views and actions regarding the survival of the young American republic. [tags: Alexander Hamilton American Revolution Essays]
. 6 Works Cited
Discussion Of 'The Liberty Of The Press' Alexander Hamilton Essay - I agree with Hamilton's point of view on "whatever find declarations may be inserted in any constitution respecting it must altogether depend on public opinion, and on the general spirit of the people and of the government." United States of America is a country that strongly relies on the freedom, liberty, equality of its citizens and also public opinions. According to John Locke, "people are born free with natural rights, including the rights to life, liberty, and property. His social contract theory holds that in order to protect people's natural rights, a government is formed to protect those rights. [tags: Alexander Hamilton]
Jefferson vs. Hamilton on Views of Government Essays - Whose side would you have been on in the 1790s, Thomas Jefferson’s or Alexander Hamilton’s. Both of these men served under George Washington in the first presidential cabinet, yet they had very different views of what government should be (Davis 86). My objective in this research essay is to inform the reader of why there was so much controversy between these two founding fathers, and to determine which side had the better views for our newly forming country. After Washington became president, people started forming political parties based on how they thought the government should be run. [tags: Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, government, ]
. 4 Works Cited
Biography of Alexander Hamilton Essay - Biography of Alexander Hamilton Summary Alexander Hamilton was most likely born on January 11, 1757, although the exact year of his birth is unknown. Hamilton was born on the Caribbean island of Nevis or St. [tags: Hamilton Founding Father Biography History]
Essay Alexander Hamilton and the Formation of American Government - Alexander Hamilton and the Formation of American Government In the United States during the late 18th century, the American Colonies were struggling with their identity. The Revolutionary War had won Americans their collective freedom, but the best way to exercise it was the subject of much debate. One American, Alexander Hamilton, felt a need for a common, strong economic and political base for the states. This ideology stemmed from both his boyhood on the Island of St. Croix, and trying events during the Revolutionary War- influences that would later be instrumental in his publishing of the Federalist Papers. [tags: Hamilton US History Government Politics]
. 6 Works Cited
Comparitive Analyis: Jefferson versus Hamilton Essay - Though both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson served as members of President Washington’s cabinet, the two held very different views on the newly founded U.S. government, interpretation of its constitution, and the role of the “masses” in that government. These conflicting views would develop in two political parties, the Federalists led by Hamilton and the Democratic-Republicans led by Jefferson. Although both political parties presented enticing aspects, Hamilton’s views were much more reasonable and fruitful when compared Jefferson’s views; idealistic and too strict in reference to the constitution. [tags: Politics Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson]
Alexander Hamilton Essay - Introduction: “ I Consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and If I were force to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton (Kaplan 284)”. Those are the words of prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice De Talleyrand after spending a year in the United States. Those words of respect came because of the actions and influences that Alexander Hamilton had on a young United States that still have an effect today. Hamilton helped shaped and interpret the United States constitution and set up the financial system that lead to the United States rise to a global power. [tags: The Constitution, Financial System]
. 4 Works Cited
Aleander Hamilton Essay - alexander hamilton Alexander Hamilton is among a group of men extolled as the founders of America. These framers, as they are best known, tend to be grouped, by modern Americans, into a single, homogeneous aggregate of people, with identical beliefs, political tactics, and goals. This generalization is far from reality, however. This is demonstrated in Forrest McDonald’s book, Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. Perhaps the most interesting part of the life of Alexander Hamilton was its first half. [tags: Biography Biographies]
Hamilton And The Economy Essay, Research Paper
Hamilton and the Economy
Since the birth of the country, there have been many influences on its development. The economy in particular has been an area of great importance. Many people have been factors in the growth of the United States? economy. Perhaps the earliest and most influential of these was Alexander Hamilton. As shown in his effective policies, such as assumption of Revolutionary War debts, practical taxation, formation of the National Bank, and views on manufacturing, Hamilton was a dominant force from the beginning. During his term as secretary of the treasury, he acted with the power and commanding force of a Prime Minister. None of the other founding fathers contributed as much to the economy?s growth, and the shape of the country in general, as he did. Alexander Hamilton was the most influential of the United States? early politicians on the development of the country?s economy.
One of the earliest examples of Hamilton?s power was his role in the national assumption of state debts. After the Revolutionary War, individual states had varying amounts of debt. States with less debt were in favor of paying it off themselves, while those with greater debt needed some federal aid. Wanting to make the country more unified, Hamilton saw making a large collective national debt as a way to bring together the states. Hamilton?s impulse, therefore, in assuming all outstanding state debts was to avoid unnecessary and destructive competition between state and federal governments, and at the same time to preempt the best sources of revenue for the United States Treasury? (Elkins and McKitrick 119). The author states Hamilton?s motives for assumption were to eliminate competition between the states that might damage the union. This fits in with his larger policy of strong national government. Other politicians were opposed to this, such as Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Their opposition to the plan went away as assumption became associated with other less controversial plans of Hamilton?s. Madison even turned in defense of the plan after being convinced of Hamilton?s financial vision (Bowers 61). Hamilton made a compromise turning out in his favor when he allowed Madison and Jefferson to have a capital on the Potomac River. This allowed him to pass his plan more easily while giving up something of little importance to him or the country?s wellbeing (Bowers 65).
Hamilton also showed his influence in the development of the country?s taxation policies. He set up funding programs to pay off the now large national debt. In raising money to meet the obligation of Assumption, he resorted to direct taxation as little as possible, and made luxuries bear the burden? (Bowers 20). Hamilton preferred taxing luxuries that only the rich could afford instead of merely taxing the entire population equally. Part of Hamilton?s vision was to have a very commercial economy. He did not want taxation to discourage business growth, and made great efforts to make excise inspection non-oppressive (Mitchell 186). Hamilton did whatever was in his power to stimulate growth of industry so that the nation might grow into an economic giant.
The early enactment of a National Bank would never have existed without Hamilton?s drive. He single handedly planned and set the foundation for a bank, which was essential to his fiscal philosophy. His presentation to congress was so detailed and thorough that a majority if the House even needed explanation as to the rudimentary function of the bank (Mitchell 197). Jeffersonians opposed this plan because they had a strict view of the constitution, which did not call for a national bank. Hamilton used the elastic clause to justify this, and felt that the bank was ?necessary and proper? to the function of the government. He also knew that the politicians he needed the support of were aristocrats and would favor a strong central economy, as opposed to the Jeffersonian vision of a nation of self-sufficient farmers (Dos Passos 238). Here Hamilton knew that the common man, which was represented by the Republicans, would not play a role in the banks formation, and that the Federalists would be able to pass the bank. The bank would not have passed, however, had Hamilton not personally convinced the president of its merit. Washington?s approval led to immediate subscription of the capital and a successful beginning (Mitchell 203). Hamilton?s bank proved to be essential to the country?s early economic stability, and was a product of his singular effort.
Included in Hamilton?s vision of the country was an emphasis on industry. He foresaw the United States as becoming an industrial power on the worlds scale. All in all, Hamilton?s report brilliantly expounded the doctrine of a powerful, prosperous and self-contained nation and blue printed the exposition with a program well calculated to achieve it? (Schachner 187). In addition to this, Schachner also calls December 5, 1791?s report ?the most eloquent argument ever made to prove the necessity for industrializing a nation? (186). Hamilton wrote an exquisite report that well supported his argument for an industrialized nation. He acted even before gaining the approval of Congress, as he made commercial investments while still a civilian. He developed S.U.M. or the Society for Establishing Useful Manufactures, completely independent of the government (Dos Passos 238). Hamilton?s foresight was durable and sound, he saw the United States as it is today. Our country is now powerful in importing and exporting industrial products and is not a Jeffersonian nation of farmers. The policies that Hamilton was in favor of have led the United States to a very strong economy and a world power.
Under Washington, Hamilton became the country?s first Secretary of the Treasury. Although Secretary of State is usually thought of as highest cabinet post, Hamilton made the treasury immensely powerful. He made the position into a virtual prime ministry, controlling other parts of the government (Mitchell 298-299). Although his was the second position in the cabinet, he thought of himself as the Prime Minister. The other members of the Presidents official family were his subordinates? (Bower 169). Hamilton created a position so powerful he was able to control any part of the government he needed to cooperate with his policies.
As Hamilton saw it the secretaries of war and state should be subordinate officers as they were in England. How far he had succeeded could be judged by the budgets for the three departments: In the budget presented to congress in January 1791 about $57,000 was allotted to the Treasury, $6,500 to the war department and $6,200 to Jefferson?s department of state. (Dos Passos 239)
The quote shows the extent that he controlled other departments of government through their funding, with his own department receiving a vast majority of the budget and the power that comes with it. The mercantile and financial stakes fell directly in line under his jurisdiction, as did Washington?s support and confidence (Dos Passos 239-240). The office of Secretary of Treasury became the highest point of importance in the finances and politics of this period, and shows Hamilton?s outstanding legacy of leadership, practicality, and patriotism.
Hamilton?s vision has proven itself correct over time. The United States now shows traits, which were foreseen by him as being beneficial to our country. The debates that arose over his programs marked the birth of political parties, with the country dividing into Federalists and Republicans (Mitchell 190). Hamilton was most influential on the Federalist Party then any other politician in history. No one individual did more to alter and shape the Federalist Party as a whole than Alexander Hamilton? (Elkins and McKitrick 22). Another trait that has since benefited the United States was a department that he formed to control smuggling, which has since grown and evolved as the United States coast guard (Mitchell 181). Hamilton has made many lasting contributions to help the development of the United States economy. Hamilton wanted an industrialized economy. To help achieve this he supported taxes on foreign goods, encouraging growth of American Industry. Through supporting tariffs on foreign goods, Hamilton supported economic infrastructure, and advocated a nationally directed, controlled economy, in the interest of foreign enterprise (Morris 130). Hamilton clearly envisioned the nations potential as an economic power, and took great impetus in shaping economic infrastructure.
Of the many figures in American History, Alexander Hamilton has proven himself one of the most versatile and influential. His policies and ideals have helped the United States blossom into a prosperous world power. Through his power as secretary of Treasury and his convincing intellectual efforts, he was able to dominate the nations early political environment. Hamilton?s patriotic endeavors have proven themselves to be durable and in the best interests of the United States.