Many teachers have discovered the power of famous quotations. Such quotations can be used to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills. Included: "Why use quotations?" plus a quotation a day for 180 days of school.
Last year at P.S. 209, a K-8 school in Brooklyn, New York, principal Howard Leibowitz asked each teacher to select a quotation that would be printed in large type, laminated, and hung over the classroom doorway. "Initially, many teachers thought this was a hokey idea," teacher Elyse Hunt told Education World, "but it caught on quickly. Teachers -- and students -- eagerly read and sometimes pondered the meanings of those quotations."
Leibowitz encouraged teachers to initiate discussions about the quotations, added Hunt. Teachers reinforced them in a variety of ways. Hunt even created hidden-message word search puzzles using the Puzzlemaker Web site. The hidden message was a well-known quotation.
Among the quotations that were hung over doorways, Hunt recalled, was the one that hung outside her classroom: "If you fail to plan, you plan to fail." Others included "Winners never quit, and quitters never win" and "Whether you think you can or think you can't, you're right."
QUOTATIONS FILL THE BILL!
Nancy Crossley starts each day in her sixth-grade language arts class with a notable quote.
"When I switched from teaching tenth grade to teaching sixth grade, I soon learned that sixth graders' thinking capabilities were more concrete than abstract," said Crossley, who teaches at Aledo (Texas) Middle School. "I had a whole set of quotations that I just laid aside until spring. Even then, I needed quotations more basic, preferably centered on self-esteem, desire to learn, and treatment of others. I typed the quotations I found onto transparencies so that I could use them as board work at the start of class. The kids are very active and the notable quote exercise -- complete with lowered lights, silence, and a serious discussion -- helped cool the classroom atmosphere."
Crossley distributes to each student a form that includes spaces headed Quotation (for copying the quotation), In My Own Words (where students can rephrase the quotation), and For Example (where they can give a concrete example of the quotation's meaning).
"They love having a form," Crossley told Education World. "As they enter the room, a day's new quotation is on the overhead. Even if they don't understand it, they can at least copy it, so the room does get quiet. I tell them it's OK if they truly don't understand the quotation, that they can fill in the rest of it as they hear classmates' explanations. Then I call on volunteers to read to us whatever they choose to share."
"I've learned to ask whether anyone had a different interpretation," Crossley added. "The participation level in this activity is high. It is one of the few times that they want to talk so badly that they actually bite their lips and wave their arms around in the air. I usually have to move on to the lesson, leaving some to groan that they didn't get to read theirs."
What do students get out of their daily notable quote exercise? "Knowing what lies ahead for my students in high school, I recognized this as an educationally sound exercise in many ways," said Crossley. Among the skills this exercise helps students practice are
Crossley also noted that in the new End of Course (EOC) exam, required by Texas for sophomore English credit, the essay prompt is very different from the persuasive one on the TAAS. It is a quotation! The student must explain the quotation and support the explanation with examples!
WELCOME TO THE LAND OF ABSTRACT THINKING!
Crossley recalled the first quotation she uses with her sixth graders: "A teacher can open the door to learning, but only you can enter." Yes, she admitted, she usually gets her share of literal thinkers whose interpretations begin and end with "The teacher should open the door to her classroom so her students can come in." Why would a quotation like that become famous? she challenges her charges. Ah, it must mean something else. What other kind of door? How do you enter?
"They came with me to the land of abstract thinking!" proclaimed Crossley. "I had not realized what an adventure this would be for them, what new territory!"
Another memorable quotation was Eleanor Roosevelt's "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent."
"I had my most poignant responses from my poorest students, who finally had a forum in which they could respond to the cruelty they encountered in an affluent school as well as recover some dignity by simply reclaiming their right to self-esteem," said Crossley. "What a terrific moment for me as a teacher!
Students started bringing in quotations they like, and we write them on large index cards and post them around the room," Crossley said. "One boy who was a football player brought in 'Even a blind dog finds a bone some of the time.' In explaining it to the class, he told them it was like being the worst player on the team, but every now and then you fall down and get in the way of the other guys.
"I added 'Even the weakest member has value, even in a class,'" noted Crossley. "I love briefly expanding on their observations. I get to say very thought-provoking things that just sort of hang in the air. Then I move on."
Here's another favorite of Crossley's: "Choose your socks by their color and your friends by their character. Choosing your socks by their character makes no sense. Choosing your friends by their color is unthinkable."
"After we get past the interpretation that this is about character socks -- like Bugs Bunny! -- we are able to discuss racism and true character," said Crossley.
"The greatest value I see in this project is that it encourages deep thinking in children who are already grappling with complex issues," Crossley concluded. "Maybe by tackling tough issues in middle school, we can avoid a Columbine incident. I doubt that we touched on the three 'basics' -- sex, drugs, and rock 'n' roll -- but it seems even more basic to me to teach them and walk them through abstract, evaluative thinking that encourages them to solve problems as individuals. For some, this is their first exercise in wisdom."
WHY QUOTATIONS? A FEW MORE THOUGHTS
Quotations are a great way to get a dialogue going with students, added Elyse Hunt. That's just one of many possible benefits.
NOW FOR THE QUOTATIONS -- ALL 180 OF THEM!
Drum roll! So here they are -- 180 quotations, one for each school day! Just click here to view the entire list. These quotations have been drawn from numerous sources. Those sources include the Web, teacher listservs, quotation dictionaries, and many others. The list that follows is a "starter list." To supplement these famous quotations or to personalize the list for your students, pick up at a local bookstore any of the most popular quotation dictionaries, search the Web for one of the many online quotation sources, or invite students to bring in their own quotations!
Related Articles from Education World
Article by Gary Hopkins
Education World® Editor in Chief
Copyright © 2009 Education World
Originally published 06/18/2002
Last updated 09/22/2009
Lessons to Celebrate Black History Month February is the annual observance of Black History Month, a time to recognize the achievements, contributions, and culture of African Americans. This week, Education World offers ten innovative activities to start your celebration of Black History Month -- and to help you incorporate the African American experience into your curriculum all year long! Included: Challenge students to create ABC books, murals, and more about famous African Americans! In 1926, Dr. Carter Godwin Woodson, an African American historian, writer, and educator, established Negro History Week to honor the contributions of African Americans. Often called the "Father of Black History," Woodson chose February for this observance because the birthdays of abolitionist Frederick Douglass and President Abraham Lincoln fall in this month. During the early 1970s, the name of the celebration was changed to Black History Week. It was expanded to Black History Month in 1976. Black History Month is sponsored by the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History (ASALH), an organization founded by Woodson in 1915. (It was then called the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History.) Each year, the ASALH selects a national theme for Black History Month. The theme for 2001 is Creating and Defining the African-American Community: Family, Church, Politics, and Culture. Begin your celebration of Black History Month with ten terrific classroom activities from Education World! Read the brief description of each activity below. Click any headline for a complete teaching resource! Civil Rights Timeline Students create a timeline about important events in the early civil rights movement. (Grade 6-8, 9-12) Famous African Americans ABC Book Help students create an ABC book with short biographies of famous African Americans in history. (Grade K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) African American History Mural Students create a mural of famous African Americans. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Fabulous Firsts in African American History Students learn fascinating firsts and facts about African American history and answer questions about those facts. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) African American Inventors and Inventions Students learn about inventions created by African Americans and complete a work sheet about the information learned. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) 365 Days of African American History Have students create a daily calendar of events in African American history. (Grade K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) 'I Have a Dream' Poster After studying Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, students create a poster about their dreams for the future. (Grade K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Local Black History Help students learn about African American history in their city or town using library sources, online sources, and oral narratives. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Students dramatize the incident that started the civil rights movement: Rosa Parks's refusal to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Romare Bearden-Style Collages Students create collages in the style of African American artist Romare Bearden. (Grade 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) ADDITIONAL ONLINE RESOURCES The Web is full of great resources for teaching about African American history and culture. Following are four sites worthy of special note: The Dred Scott Case Black History Archives Smithsonian Education African American History Month Read More About It! Find a host of ideas for teaching about black history on our special Celebrate Black History theme page. Article by Lois Lewis Education World® Copyright © Education World Last updated 12/30/2014
Presidents Day Activities The third Monday in February is the annual observance of Presidents Day. Education World offers five excellent activities to teach students about the presidents of the United States! Included: Activities in which students create a picture book of presidents, design a new presidential monument, imagine they are president for a day, and more! Presidents' Day is a holiday honoring past presidents of the United States. What is the history behind Presidents' Day? Take a look at our brief time line. 1796 -- The country first celebrated the birthday of George Washington during the last full year he was president. 1866 -- One year after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, both houses of Congress gathered for a memorial address on his birthday, February 12. Although Lincoln's birthday became a holiday in many states, it never became an official federal holiday. 1885-- President Chester Arthur made Washington's birthday a federal holiday. 1968 -- Congress passed legislation moving the observance of George Washington's birthday from February 22 to the third Monday in February. 1971-- The legislation passed in 1968 took effect in 1971. Some people think that the legislation combined the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and George Washington to create Presidents' Day. Congress never combined Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays. The holiday is still officially called Washington's Birthday. Use these five terrific classroom activities from Education World to help you teach your students about the U.S. presidents! Read the brief descriptions below for each lesson. Click any headline for a complete teaching resource! Presidential time line Students create a time line about the presidents of the United States. (Grades 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) Presidential monuments Students create a new monument for a U.S. president! (Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) President for a day Students imagine they are president of the United States for one day! What would they do? What would their day be like? (Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8) Presidential powers Students study the section of the Constitution that refers to the executive branch and write a proposal for a new power for the president of the United States. (Grades 6-8, 9-12) Presidents picture book Students create a picture book of the U.S. presidents. (Grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8) Copyright © 2017 Education World
The Benefits of Flipped Classrooms for Students with Learning Needs It’s been about 10 years since the idea of flipping classrooms first gained its soaring popularity and good reviews – and in that time it’s also apparently grown to help students with special needs. Greg Green, perhaps the best-known administrator advocating for flipped classrooms, discovered the process (providing students with lessons at home in videos and then homework and support in the classroom) as he began his career—working in special education. “That’s where I started teaching, and I found that I could give the students video tapes of the lesson. It allowed the students to play it back or pause it—and got parents involved. They loved it because they better understood what their students were doing and could help them.” He says that when he had the students in class he could spend more time with them individually. Rather than try to instruct all the students having a wide range of needs and levels, he could tailor a lesson for all online, with extra work for those more advanced and time in the classroom to review for those who might be at a slower pace. In class he was still busy, moving from student-to-student, but some were working independently, some advancing with just a bit of assistance (often from someone helping in the class—even a volunteer) and others who required a great deal of attention getting it, rather than being lost in a lesson aimed too high for them. So a lesson about the branches of government might be supplemented by current events readings or other writings about the courts for some, it might require a brief explanation the next day about some terms for a few and for others struggling, several views of a video and some further explanation. That’s time better spent than on a teacher-delivered lesson, where some would be bored and off-task, others would have a variety of questions that would delay the class and others would not understand. That work at the right pace takes place at home, ideally with help from parents and others. “When we provided kids with accommodations it increasingly also could be handled with technology and now that is even easier to access,” he says. So, experts point out that along with the flexibility of video, applications that allow captioning, easy enlargement of pages or text-to-speech can help special needs students. Mainstream technology now more often offers what used to be considered assistive technology, making it familiar to these students, less embarrassing and more accessible. Other teachers have reported that flipped classroom approaches are perhaps even more effective with students having special needs than the general population, and Andrea Prupas, an educational consultant working with the approach, reports that it goes beyond just these students learning at home at their own pace. “We feel that other benefits stem from the fact that the classroom can become a more interactive, collaborative and authentic place for learning,” she notes. “We approach flipping the classroom for students with special needs with the idea of doing things differently versus doing different things.” She says flipping can “liberate the classroom for varied, differentiated forms of instruction” and the students can have more time with the teacher or another adult one-on-one which offers “real life connections that are so vitally important to students with special needs.” Other experts have pointed out that both ends of the flipped classroom, like the traditional classroom model, may have to be different for special needs students. In the classroom, for instance, teachers may have to allow time and a place for repetition of the home lesson and plan for the availability of the proper equipment and instructions at home so the student can view and interact with the lesson. Students with attention issues may find learning lessons online is easier, and if they need to move around a classroom it is less disruptive when the class is flipped and the teacher is engaged with the students and doesn’t need everyone’s attention at once. Meanwhile, teachers of English language learners are using technology in similar ways, most notably to support reading and translation (in the classroom and readily on a phone or home computer, now), and teachers in regular classes are finding flipped classrooms can help them meet these students’ needs, especially if language is the only thing standing in their way. Cara Johnson heads the science department at Allen, TX, High School, where she is known as a vocal proponent of flipped classes. One of her favorite success stories is about a “brilliant” student from Korea who was struggling in a science class because she knew little English. According to Johnson, flipping the classroom "helped her tremendously. She was able to watch and re-watch my videos. Since English was difficult for her, and I often speak very quickly, she had the power to pause and rewind the lecture to make sure she understood the message. Also, I had the time to work with her one-on-one and help clarify the concepts with which she struggled. Not only did she learn anatomy in my class, she learned so much English because she replayed the lectures – and my class was a constant conversation between the students and me.” And for students who have behavior issues, the flipped lesson is an alternative for the person monitoring in-school suspension sessions and trying to track down work for a student or parents if a student is suspended at home. Busy teachers often can’t find time to provide work for a suspended student and there are complications with getting the work to the suspension monitor or parent. Sometimes, especially for a student who was off task or missed the class, the work requires explanation that a parent or staff member monitoring suspension can’t provide. And even in an alternative setting, the lessons can be put to use. The alternative center at Edenton-Chowan Schools in N.C. offers small classes where students can access online lessons and keep pace with their classmates. Research has shown that online work is beneficial to students in alternative programs because while they can work on lessons at home, in the classroom “technology allows the role of the teacher to change from the dispenser of information to a facilitator of learning who motivates, assists, and guides students.” There is more information at this blog entry from the Flipped Learning Network and this page from the Flipped Institute. Jim Paterson has been a newspaper and magazine editor and an award-winning writer for The Washington Post, USA Today Weekend, the Christian Science Monitor, Parents magazine, and a number of national and regional publications. During a break from writing he worked as a school counselor for seven years and quickly became head of a counseling department and "Counselor of the Year" in Montgomery County, Md. He now writes about education primarily. More about Jim at www.otherperplexity.com.
Essay Technical and Vocational Education and over other 27,000+ free term papers, essays and research papers examples are available on the website!
Autor: people • August 19, 2011 • Essay • 812 Words (4 Pages) • 481 Views
Technical and vocational education (TVE) has been an integral part of national development strategies in many societies because of its impact on productivity and economic development. Despite its contributions the leaders of Nigeria have not given this aspect of education the attention it deserves. And that is one of the reasons for the nation's underdevelopment. This article focuses on the dearth of skilled technical manpower in Nigeria and argues that technical education holds the key to national development.1
Technical education "is a planned program of courses and learning experiences that begins with exploration of career options, supports basic academic and life skills, and enables achievement of high academic standards, leadership, preparation for industry-defined work, and advanced and continuing education."2 And vocational education and training "prepares learners for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation." In other words, it is an "education designed to develop occupational skills."3 Vocational and technical education gives individuals the skills to "live, learn and work as a productive citizen in a global society."
The provision of vocational and technical schools has a long history. Before the Industrial Revolution (between 1750 and 1830) the home and the "apprenticeship system" were the principal sources of vocational education. But societies were later forced by the decline of handwork and specialization of occupational functions to develop institutions of vocational education (Duffy, 1967).4 Manual training that involves general instruction in the use of hand tools was said to have developed initially in Scandinavia (c.1866). However, vocational education became popular in the elementary schools in the United States after 1880 and developed into courses in industrial training, bookkeeping, stenography, and allied commercial work in both public and private institutions. As the Columbia Encyclopedia (2001) noted some of the early private trade schools in the United States include Cooper Union (1859) and Pratt Institute (1887), the Hampton Institute (1868) and Tuskegee Institute (1881). The agricultural high school (1888) of the University of Minnesota was the first regularly established public vocational secondary school that introduced extensive public instruction in agriculture.5
The number of public and private vocational schools has greatly increased in the United States since 1900. There was an impetus on vocational education during World War II (1939-1945) when the armed services had great need for technicians that the civilian world could not supply. There was a further upsurge on vocational training from the Servicemen's