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Once an argument has been defined in the opening paragraph(s), so that the. So as to bring out its relationship to the thesis, and then moves onto the next point. A typical short essay, for example, calls for an argument of about 750 to 1000. Argument models and ap prompt forms july. View download, a paraphrase activity to use with "reading literary memoir" essay, 27k, v. 2, jun 25, 2013, 8:03. Preparing for the synthesis question: six moves toward success The confirmation would offer points to substantiate the argument and provide reasons, details. Notice how these six moves might structure an argument essay. 3 days ago. Split your payment apart - charles texier descriptive essay. Six moves of an argumentative essay jessayuna yangtze smart essay. The argumentative essay shares many characteristics with the expository essay. To accept your point of view about the topic whether it is gun control, safe sex. We move to the fact that every argument must have a proposition -- this is the.Ap central - preparing for the synthesis question: six moves. Top 50 free ideas for argumentative/persuasive essay topics Ap resources for synthesis and argument - writespace Essays and arguments: section six Essays and arguments: section six Steps in writing an argumentative essay - south georgia technical.
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Six provides simple utilities for wrapping over differences between Python 2 and Python 3. It is intended to support codebases that work on both Python 2 and 3 without modification. six consists of only one Python file, so it is painless to copy into a project.
Six can be downloaded on PyPi. Its bug tracker and code hosting is on BitBucket .
The name, “six”, comes from the fact that 2*3 equals 6. Why not addition? Multiplication is more powerful, and, anyway, “five” has already been snatched away by the (admittedly now moribund) Zope Five project.Indices and tables¶ Package contents¶
A boolean indicating if the code is running on Python 2.
A boolean indicating if the code is running on Python 3.Constants¶
Six provides constants that may differ between Python versions. Ones ending _types are mostly useful as the second argument to isinstance or issubclass .
Possible class types. In Python 2, this encompasses old-style and new-style classes. In Python 3, this is just new-styles.
Possible integer types. In Python 2, this is long and int. and in Python 3, just int .
Possible types for text data. This is basestring() in Python 2 and str in Python 3.
Type for representing (Unicode) textual data. This is unicode() in Python 2 and str in Python 3.
Type for representing binary data. This is str in Python 2 and bytes in Python 3.
The maximum size of a container like list or dict. This is equivalent to sys.maxsize in Python 2.6 and later (including 3.x). Note, this is temptingly similar to, but not the same as sys.maxint in Python 2. There is no direct equivalent to sys.maxint in Python 3 because its integer type has no limits aside from memory.
Here’s example usage of the module:Object model compatibility¶
Python 3 renamed the attributes of several intepreter data structures. The following accessors are available. Note that the recommended way to inspect functions and methods is the stdlib inspect module.
six. get_unbound_function ( meth ) ¶
Get the function out of unbound method meth. In Python 3, unbound methods don’t exist, so this function just returns meth unchanged. Example usage:
six. get_method_function ( meth ) ¶
Get the function out of method object meth .
six. get_method_self ( meth ) ¶
Get the self of bound method meth .
six. get_function_closure ( func ) ¶
Get the closure (list of cells) associated with func. This is equivalent to func.__closure__ on Python 2.6+ and func.func_closure on Python 2.5.
six. get_function_code ( func ) ¶
Get the code object associated with func. This is equivalent to func.__code__ on Python 2.6+ and func.func_code on Python 2.5.
six. get_function_defaults ( func ) ¶
Get the defaults tuple associated with func. This is equivalent to func.__defaults__ on Python 2.6+ and func.func_defaults on Python 2.5.
six. get_function_globals ( func ) ¶
Get the globals of func. This is equivalent to func.__globals__ on Python 2.6+ and func.func_globals on Python 2.5.
Get the next item of iterator it. StopIteration is raised if the iterator is exhausted. This is a replacement for calling it.next() in Python 2 and next(it) in Python 3.
Check if obj can be called. Note callable has returned in Python 3.2, so using six’s version is only necessary when supporting Python 3.0 or 3.1.
Returns an iterator over dictionary ‘s keys. This replaces dictionary.iterkeys() on Python 2 and dictionary.keys() on Python 3. kwargs are passed through to the underlying method.
Returns an iterator over dictionary ‘s values. This replaces dictionary.itervalues() on Python 2 and dictionary.values() on Python 3. kwargs are passed through to the underlying method.
Returns an iterator over dictionary ‘s items. This replaces dictionary.iteritems() on Python 2 and dictionary.items() on Python 3. kwargs are passed through to the underlying method.
Calls dictionary.iterlists() on Python 2 and dictionary.lists() on Python 3. No builtin Python mapping type has such a method; this method is intended for use with multi-valued dictionaries like Werkzeug’s. kwargs are passed through to the underlying method.
six. viewkeys ( dictionary ) ¶
Return a view over dictionary ‘s keys. This replaces dict.viewkeys() on Python 2.7 and dict.keys() on Python 3.
six. viewvalues ( dictionary ) ¶
Return a view over dictionary ‘s values. This replaces dict.viewvalues() on Python 2.7 and dict.values() on Python 3.
six. viewitems ( dictionary ) ¶
Return a view over dictionary ‘s items. This replaces dict.viewitems() on Python 2.7 and dict.items() on Python 3.
six. create_bound_method ( func. obj ) ¶
Return a method object wrapping func and bound to obj. On both Python 2 and 3, this will return a types.MethodType object. The reason this wrapper exists is that on Python 2, the MethodType constructor requires the obj ‘s class to be passed.
six. create_unbound_method ( func. cls ) ¶
Return an unbound method object wrapping func. In Python 2, this will return a types.MethodType object. In Python 3, unbound methods do not exist and this wrapper will simply return func .
A class for making portable iterators. The intention is that it be subclassed and subclasses provide a __next__ method. In Python 2, Iterator has one method: next. It simply delegates to __next__. An alternate way to do this would be to simply alias next to __next__. However, this interacts badly with subclasses that override __next__. Iterator is empty on Python 3. (In fact, it is just aliased to object .)
@ six. wraps ( wrapped. assigned=functools.WRAPPER_ASSIGNMENTS. updated=functools.WRAPPER_UPDATES ) ¶
This is exactly the functools.wraps() decorator, but it sets the __wrapped__ attribute on what it decorates as functools.wraps() does on Python versions after 3.2.Syntax compatibility¶
These functions smooth over operations which have different syntaxes between Python 2 and 3.
Execute code in the scope of globals and locals. code can be a string or a code object. If globals or locals are not given, they will default to the scope of the caller. If just globals is given, it will also be used as locals .
Python 3’s exec() doesn’t take keyword arguments, so calling exec() with them should be avoided.
Print args into file. Each argument will be separated with sep and end will be written to the file after the last argument is printed. If flush is true, file.flush() will be called after all data is written.
In Python 2, this function imitates Python 3’s print() by not having softspace support. If you don’t know what that is, you’re probably ok. )
six. raise_from ( exc_value. exc_value_from ) ¶
Raise an exception from a context. On Python 3, this is equivalent to raise exc_value from exc_value_from. On Python 2, which does not support exception chaining, it is equivalent to raise exc_value .
six. reraise ( exc_type. exc_value. exc_traceback=None ) ¶
Reraise an exception, possibly with a different traceback. In the simple case, reraise(*sys.exc_info()) with an active exception (in an except block) reraises the current exception with the last traceback. A different traceback can be specified with the exc_traceback parameter. Note that since the exception reraising is done within the reraise() function, Python will attach the call frame of reraise() to whatever traceback is raised.
six. with_metaclass ( metaclass. *bases ) ¶
Create a new class with base classes bases and metaclass metaclass. This is designed to be used in class declarations like this:
Another way to set a metaclass on a class is with the add_metaclass() decorator.
@ six. add_metaclass ( metaclass ) ¶
Class decorator that replaces a normally-constructed class with a metaclass-constructed one. Example usage:Binary and text data¶
Python 3 enforces the distinction between byte strings and text strings far more rigoriously than Python 2 does; binary data cannot be automatically coerced to or from text data. six provides several functions to assist in classifying string data in all Python versions.
A “fake” bytes literal. data should always be a normal string literal. In Python 2, b() returns a 8-bit string. In Python 3, data is encoded with the latin-1 encoding to bytes.
Since all Python versions 2.6 and after support the b prefix, b(). code without 2.5 support doesn’t need b() .
A “fake” unicode literal. text should always be a normal string literal. In Python 2, u() returns unicode, and in Python 3, a string. Also, in Python 2, the string is decoded with the unicode-escape codec, which allows unicode escapes to be used in it.
In Python 3.3, the u prefix has been reintroduced. Code that only supports Python 3 versions of 3.3 and higher thus does not need u() .
On Python 2, u() doesn’t know what the encoding of the literal is. Each byte is converted directly to the unicode codepoint of the same value. Because of this, it’s only safe to use u() with strings of ASCII data.
Return the (Unicode) string representing the codepoint c. This is equivalent to unichr() on Python 2 and chr() on Python 3.
Converts i to a byte. i must be in range(0, 256). This is equivalent to chr() in Python 2 and bytes((i,)) in Python 3.
Converts the first byte of bs to an integer. This is equivalent to ord(bs) on Python 2 and bs on Python 3.
Return the byte at index i of buf as an integer. This is equivalent to indexing a bytes object in Python 3.
Return an iterator over bytes in buf as integers. This is equivalent to a bytes object iterator in Python 3.
This is an fake file object for textual data. It’s an alias for StringIO.StringIO in Python 2 and io.StringIO in Python 3.
This is a fake file object for binary data. In Python 2, it’s an alias for StringIO.StringIO. but in Python 3, it’s an alias for io.BytesIO .
@ six. python_2_unicode_compatible ¶
A class decorator that takes a class defining a __str__ method. On Python 3, the decorator does nothing. On Python 2, it aliases the __str__ method to __unicode__ and creates a new __str__ method that returns the result of __unicode__() encoded with UTF-8.unittest assertions¶
Six contains compatibility shims for unittest assertions that have been renamed. The parameters are the same as their aliases, but you must pass the test method as the first argument. For example:
Note these functions are only available on Python 2.7 or later.Renamed modules and attributes compatibility¶
Python 3 reorganized the standard library and moved several functions to different modules. Six provides a consistent interface to them through the fake six.moves module. For example, to load the module for parsing HTML on Python 2 or 3, write:
Similarly, to get the function to reload modules, which was moved from the builtin module to the imp module, use:
For the most part, six.moves aliases are the names of the modules in Python 3. When the new Python 3 name is a package, the components of the name are separated by underscores. For example, html.parser becomes html_parser. In some cases where several modules have been combined, the Python 2 name is retained. This is so the appropiate modules can be found when running on Python 2. For example, BaseHTTPServer which is in http.server in Python 3 is aliased as BaseHTTPServer .
Some modules which had two implementations have been merged in Python 3. For example, cPickle no longer exists in Python 3; it was merged with pickle. In these cases, fetching the fast version will load the fast one on Python 2 and the merged module in Python 3.
The urllib. urllib2. and urlparse modules have been combined in the urllib package in Python 3. The six.moves.urllib package is a version-independent location for this functionality; its structure mimics the structure of the Python 3 urllib package.
In order to make imports of the form:
work, six places special proxy objects in in sys.modules. These proxies lazily load the underlying module when an attribute is fetched. This will fail if the underlying module is not available in the Python interpreter. For example, sys.modules["six.moves.winreg"].LoadKey would fail on any non-Windows platform. Unfortunately, some applications try to load attributes on every module in sys.modules. six mitigates this problem for some applications by pretending attributes on unimportable modules don’t exist. This hack doesn’t work in every case, though. If you are encountering problems with the lazy modules and don’t use any from imports directly from six.moves modules, you can workaround the issue by removing the six proxy modules:
Below is a free excerpt of "An Argumentative Essay on Raising the Legal Driving Age" from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Raising the Legal Driving Age
Getting a driver’s license is one of the major milestones in most teenager’s lives. Having the ability to get behind the wheel of a car gives young people a great sense of maturity and independence. But, is ok in today’s society to allow that sense of maturity at such a young age? Right now, in the state of Virginia, teens can get their learners permit at age 15 and have their driver’s license by the age of 16 with only six behind-the-wheel hours of supervised experience (DMV, 2015). In a fast moving world that is much different than just 20 years ago, only having six hours in a little more than a year’s worth of time behind the wheel before being able to receive a license is just not enough. There are more distractions that drivers have to deal with and young drivers should be required to have more supervised driving experience before being licensed. There are some people, however, that would disagree. But when faced with some facts on the matter, it will become clearer that the driving age limit needs to be reevaluated. Several ideas such as more distractions in the form of technology in the car and on the road, a lack of maturity and experience, and the fact that young people are more likely to be in a fatal car accident are all valid reason to raise the legal driving age.
Some people do not believe age plays a factor in the ability to drive a vehicle by themselves without adult supervision. In a high school newspaper, Nowak (2004) said that “Raising the driving age would just make inexperienced drivers older and would solve nothing” (as cited by Yee, 2004). This is a good point, however, it is shown that the leading cause of death for 15-20 year olds is, in fact, auto accidents (Insurance Information Institute, 2015). Now why is this? Could it be that much has changed since the making of these laws and it is no longer safe to let teenagers take over the wheel at such a young age? In New Jersey, which is the only state that.