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How Homework Doesn't Help Students Soar

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As The Number Of Homeless Students Soars, How Schools Can Serve Them Better: NPR Ed: NPR

As The Number Of Homeless Students Soars, How Schools Can Serve Them Better

Chris Kindred for NPR

When Caitlin Cheney was living at a campground in Washington state with her mother and younger sister, she would do her homework by the light of the portable toilets, sitting on the concrete.

She maintained nearly straight A's even though she had to hitchhike to school, making it there an average of three days a week. "I really liked doing homework," says Cheney, 22, who is now an undergraduate zoology student at Washington State University. "It kept my mind off reality a little bit."

More than 1 million public school students in the United States have no room to call their own, no desk to do their homework, no bed to rely on at night. State data collection, required by federal law and aggregated by the National Center for Homeless Education. shows the number of homeless students has doubled in the past decade, to 1.3 million in 2013-2014.

A new report by the nonpartisan advocacy group Civic Enterprises brings the voices of these students to life.

"I've been working on the dropout problem for more than a decade," says co-author John Bridgeland. "I discovered homelessness wasn't on our radar screen and it wasn't on others' radar screens, notwithstanding this 100 percent increase."

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But the Every Student Succeeds Act, or ESSA, includes both new mandates and some extra money to assist districts in helping more students like Cheney.

The challenge starts with finding them. As other research has shown, students with insecure housing aren't all living in shelters. They may be doubled up with relatives or moving frequently from place to place. And they may be housed with their whole families, or going it alone.

This study relied on interviews with 44 currently homeless youth and a survey of 158 more who were homeless at some point in middle or high school.

Ninety-four percent reported staying with different people such as relatives or friends, and 44 percent stayed in a hotel, while half had spent some nights in a car, park, abandoned building or a public place like a bus station. Often, schools have a practice of asking for proof of residence only once at enrollment, which doesn't capture transitions or instability.

A second issue in identifying these students is stigma. Two-thirds of the students in the study said they were uncomfortable telling people at school about their situation.

That was the case for Cheney. "I knew that there was a good chance my sister and I would be separated in the foster system," she recalls. "I couldn't allow that to happen. I got the message from my mom that I shouldn't be telling people at school, and I should try to resolve my issues on my own."

Homeless students are disproportionately youth of color and LGBT. Other research cited in the report says 40 to 60 percent have experienced some kind of physical abuse, while 17 to 35 percent have experienced sexual abuse. And academically they are far behind their peers.

Both resources and red tape can be barriers in the way of helping these students. But on the bright side, says Bridgeland, "We're looking at schools as a hub for connecting students and families to housing, mentoring, tutoring, mental health and other services."

For nearly 30 years, a federal law called the McKinney-Vento Act has been meant to ensure that homeless students have the same access to school as anyone else. The law requires that each school district designate a liaison to ensure enforcement.

This report surveyed 500 of those liaison staffers and found, however, that 90 percent are effectively moonlighting, spending less than half of their time on duties related to identifying and helping homeless youth. At the same time, only 36 percent of liaisons reported that they work "a great deal" with community organizations, which would be presumed to be the best way to connect families with the housing and other services they need.

Maybe that's why just 1 in 4 of the youth surveyed, and 29 percent of liaisons, said that schools did a good job connecting students with housing, their stated top priority. Among the youth, 58 percent said that their schools "should have done a lot more" or did a poor job.

"When I see a finding like that I freak out that this is so bad," says Bridgeland. "But the action-oriented part of me says, wait a minute, here's where the opportunity is."

Bridgeland and Civic Enterprises are part of a network of organizations that have been heavily involved in efforts to bring down the high school dropout rate, which has fallen significantly in the past decade. Bridgeland says homeless youth are going to be their next major area of effort.

First of all, the numbers, which have doubled, are likely to grow even bigger thanks to better reporting under new ESSA requirements. Under the federal law, districts must perform outreach to housing-unstable students multiple times during the school year, post public notices of homeless student rights and, most significantly, they must break out high school graduation rates for homeless youth.

Other changes in the law that are likely to focus public attention have to do with how easy schools make it for homeless youth to continue their education despite disruptions.

About half of homeless youth in this study reported having to change schools in the middle of the year. Bridgeland says it's been common for paperwork requirements like proof of residence to keep students out of class for up to a month.

But with modern data systems, ESSA now requires schools to put students in classes immediately and contact their previous schools for records. Schools must also help homeless students make up work and come back to school regardless of absences.

Another significant issue, of course, is money. ESSA includes a 20 percent increase in funding for McKinney-Vento enforcement. Money will now be set aside from Title I funding to help attract, engage and retain homeless students. There will also be money to train more front line school staffers, from teachers to cafeteria workers and bus drivers, to recognize and help homeless youth.

But money isn't the only solution. Just over half — 54 percent — of the formerly homeless youth surveyed in this report said both material and emotional support are equally important to helping them continue their educations.

Caitlin Cheney says school was "a solace" for her. Besides her grades, she excelled in extracurricular activities like ceramics and a board-game club, but she said she could have used more support.

"I just wish that when kids are falling asleep in class or unable to do some assignments, or spending more time in lunch eating their only meal of the day, that teachers would ask what's going on," she says. "I wish that more teachers had more compassion for some of the situations that students might be going through."

Bridgeland says the centrality of school for many homeless young people is a sign of their resilience that gives him hope. In the interviews, he says, "there were [stories of ] kids begging their parents or guardians to let them stay in their home school, or let them back in or make sure they could get a ride."

Other articles

Soars J, Soars L, Maris A

/ Soars J. Soars L. Maris A. - New Headway Pre-Intermediate Teacher's Book - 2014

o Do you feel hot?

E Yes, especially at night. Ifeel hot and Istart coughing when Ilie down. o OK, I'll just take your temperature. Ah, yes. You do have a bit of a

fever. Now, let me see your throat. Open your mouth wide, please. E Can you see anything?

o Yes, your throat looks very red. Does this hurt? E Owl

o And your glands are swollen. You just have a bit of an infection. You need antibiotics. Are you allergic to penicillin?

o Good. Now, you should take things easy for a couple of days and you must drink plenty of liquids. I'll write you a prescription.

E Thank you. Do Ihave to pay you?

o No, no. But you'll have to pay for the prescription. It's £7.20. E Right. Thanks very much. Goodbye.

-4 ••. 8 [CD 2: Track 51] Focus attention on the gapped conversation. Elicit the first two missing words as examples.

Put students in pairs to complete the rest of the conversation. Point out that sometimes students need more than one word to fill the gaps.

Play the recording again and let students check their answers.

Answers and tapescript

5 Put students in pairs to act out the scene. If possible, move the chairs around so that the students are facing each other across a desk. Give the doctors some simple props, e. g. a pad and pen for writing the prescription. Remind the doctors to mime taking Edsom's temperature.

W ith weaker classes, you could drill the doctor's questions fi rst, focusing on the intonation. Give students time to act out the scene in their pairs. Monitor and check for good

p ronunciation. If students have a lot of problems or sound 'flat: drill key lines chorally and individually. Students then continue practising in their pairs.

For the free roleplay stage, ask students to imagine they don't feel very well and to write down a list of

symptoms. Get students to change roles and act out a new conversation with a different set of symptoms. Students continue changing roles and repeating the scene with different information each time. Monitor and help as necessary. Check for accurate use of the key language and for good pronunciation. Note any common errors but

do n't highlight and correct these until after the pairwork.

There are a number of words with silent letters in this unit. As an extension to the vocabulary and pronunciation coverage, get students to look through the unit again and note down the words with silent letters. Ask them to write the phonetic transcription

fo r each word. Students can then take turns to write the phonetics for a word on the board and get the rest of the class to guess and spell the word.

Words in rubrics that contain silent letters are: which, who, where, listen, answer, talk, guess, know, write.

Other words in this unit include:

pp62-3 foreign, climber, climb, climbing, enough

pp64-S should, bought, doubt, knee, wrist, physiotherapist, chemist, fight

pp66-7 daughter, delighted, mustn't, white, laugh, exhausting, fight

pp68-9 diarrhoea, coughing, walk, scene, should, while

Workbook Unit 8

Ex. 11 Reading - The helicopter pilot

Ex. 12 Listening - The train driver

Ex. l3 Vocabulary - Verb + noun

Ex. 14 Pronunciation - Sounds and spelling

Ex. 15 Just for fun!

Word list Unit 8 (SB p149 and TRD)

Remind your students of the Word list for this unit on SB p149. They could translate the words, learn them at home, or transfer some of the words to their vocabulary n otebook.

Teacher's Resource Disc

Stop and Check 2 (Units 5-8)

Skills Test 3 (Units 0-0)

Pronunciation Book Unit 8

Video/DVD Episode 8

Teacher's Resource Disc

Communicative activity Unit 8

Unit 8 • Girls and boys 111

Time for a story

Past Perfect and narrative tenses • Joining sentences

This unit looks at the theme of storytelling in different genres. Both grammar sections use adaptations of a fable by Aesop to contextualize the target language of narrative tenses and the Past Perfect, and conjunctions of time, result. reason, and contrast. Skills practice is in the form of a Listening and speaking section on two classic writers, and a

Reading and speaking section with a picture story of The Strange Case of OrJekyll and Mr Hyde. Vocabulary practice is on adjectives that describe feelings and the Everyday English focuses on exclamations with so and such. The Writing section carries through the theme of stories with tasks to help students write a review of a book or film .

Past Perfect and narrative tenses (SB p70) • Reviewing Past Simple and Continuous, and practising Past Perfect to talk about the past.

Pronunciation (SB p71)

-=-he aim of this activity is to set up the theme of storytelling. ld for students to share what they know about famous

iaracters in literature.

The characters featured in the Starter section are:

• Hamlet from the play of the same name by William Shakespeare (1564-1616). Hamlet is one of Shakespeare's famous tragedies, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601. Hamlet, the main character, is the Prince of Denmark and the play shows how he gets revenge on his uncle Claudius

for murdering his father and then succeeding to the throne and marrying Gertrude (Prince Hamlet's mother). The photo shows British actor Laurence Olivier as Hamlet in one of the most famous scenes from the play in which he holds the skull ofYorick, once the King's jester.

• Oliver Twist from the novel of the same name by Charles Dickens (1812-70). Published in 1838, the story is about an orphan Oliver Twist, who has a miserable life in a workhouse and then is sent to work with an undertaker. He escapes and travels to London where he meets Fagin and the Artful Dodger, leaders of a gang of pickpockets. The photo shows an actor in a famous scene from the story, in which Oliver holds up his bowl in the workhouse and asks for more food.

• Sherlock Holmes and Dr Watson from a series of novels by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930). Sherlock Holmes is one of the most famous and popular detectives in English literature. The character is famous for his intellectual prowess and astute observation when solving difficult cases. Dr Watson

i his friend and confidant. According to the stories, Holmes and Watson lived at 221 b Baker Street in London. The picture shows Holmes and Watson on a train, discussing the details of a case.

• Alice from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Caroll (1832-98). Written in 1865, the story is about a girl called Alice who falls down a rabbit hole into a fan tasy world (Wonderland) full of strange people and

animals. The picture shows Alice and the White Rabbit, one of the first characters she meets in the story.

=-'cad in to the topic by asking How often do you read

ries?A re they in your own language or in English?

·.:it a range of answers from the class.

v. us attention on the pictures and read the instructions

-S 2. class. Put students in groups of three or four to -. uss and name the characters. Check the answers.

- et from the play of the same name by William Shakespeare

r Twist from the novel of the same name by Charles Dickens --="ock Holmes and Dr Watson from the novels by Sir Arthur Conan

om Afice's Adventures in Wonderland

2 Elicit what students know about Hamlet. Students discuss the stories in the pictures in their groups.

Elicit a summary of the stories in a short feedback session. Round off by asking if students have read any of the books or seen films of them, and if they enjoyed them.

AESOP'S FABLES (SB p70)

Past Perfect and narrative tenses

Both presentations in this unit use an adaptation of a short story by Aesop /'i:sop/, an ancient Greek writer who lived in about 600 BC. His stories are known as Aesop's fables - short stories, often with animals as characters, that illustrate a moral lesson. Famous fables students may be familiar with include The Tortoise and the Hare (,slow and steady wins the race') and Th e Ant and the Grasshopper ('it is best to prepare for days of necessity') .

&. POSSIBLE PROBLEMS

Unit 3 covered the difference between Past Simple and Past Continuous. (See TB p32 for Possible problems associated with these tenses .) This unit extends the coverage of narrative tenses with a review of Past Simple and Continuous and the introduction of the Past Perfect, which expresses an action completed before another action in the past.

This is probably the first time your students will have met the Past Perfect. Students will be familiar with the components that make up the form of the tense (had + past participle) and the concept doesn't usually

present students with many problems. Students need to understand the relationship between the Past Simple and Past Perfect and using stories provides a natural context for this.

Students may confuse the contracted form of the Past Perfect 'd (had) with the contracted form of would.

She said she'd bought the tickets. (= had)

She said she'd buy the tickets. (= would)

1 Lead in to the section by asking students if they have ever heard of Aesop and his stories. Pre-teach/check fable (a traditional story that teaches a moral lesson). Focus attention on the picture of Aesop and on the picture

in the story. Read the instructions as a class and check pronunciation of bear /be'd/.

Elicit a description of the picture.

2 Pre-teach/check huge, terrified, to hide (hid, hidden), to pretend to be dead, to bend (bent, bent) down, to sniff, to whisper, to wander away, companion.

Give students time to read the story. Check that they understand the moral. If students choose True friends are hard to find, direct them to the final paragraph of the fable and the bear's advice.

Unit 9 • Time for a story 113

Answers and tapescript Pronunciation

1 They'd walked twenty miles. /

2 One man hid in a tree.

3 The other pretended to be dead.

4 When the bear had gone, the man came down. S He felt bad because he'd left his friend. /

The form 'd is the contraction of both had and would. If you think students would benefit from further

discrimination and pronunciation practice of 'd, you can read out the following sentences and get them to write had or would for each one.

Check the answers (see brackets below) and then dictate the sentences. Get students to practise the sentences

1 I called at Jack's house, but he'd gone out. (had)

2 We'd like to go to the zoo today. (would)

3 When I got to the shop, it'd already closed. (had) 4 I'd love to visit your country one day. (would)

5 I was so tired last night! I'd had such a busy day! (had) 6 I think she'd like to go for a meal. (would)

2 This task highlights the difference in meaning between the narrative tenses in this section. With weaker students, you could review the difference between Past Simple and Past Perfect as a class first. Write the following sentences on the board. Ask students to name the tenses in each sentence. Then ask What happened first? about each sentence.

When we arrived, Anna made some coffee. (both Past Simple; we arrived)

When we arrived, Anna had made some coffee. (Past Simple, Past Perfect; (Anna made some coffee)

Put students in pairs to discuss the sets of sentences. If appropriate, allow them to use L1 for this if they need to. Monitor to help and also to assess students' ideas about the tense use. If students have problems understanding the concept of each tense, be prepared to do a remedial presentation on the board (see Suggestion below).

Elicit the differences as a class, referring back to Grammar reference 9.1 as necessary.

1 sentence 1- Past Simple for past actions that followed each other (1 = Iarrived, 2 = she cooked dinner)

sentence 2- Past Continuous for an action in progress at a particular time in the past

sentence 3- Past Perfect for an action completed before another action in the past (1 = she cooked dinner, 2 = Iarrived)

2 sentence 1- Past Simple for a fact that was true at a particular time in the past.

sentence 2- Past Perfect for a fact that was true before another fact in the past (1 = she lived in France, 2 = she spoke good French) sentence 1- Past Simple with while for two actions that happened at the same time

sentence 2- Past Perfect for an action completed before another action in the past (1-1 did my homework, 2- Ilistened to music)

4 sentence 1- Past Simple for past actions that followed each other (1= Igot home, 2 =the children wentto bed)

sentence 2- Past Perfect for an action completed before another action in the past (1 = the children went to bed, 2 = Igot home)

S sentence 1- Past Simple for past actions that followed each other (1 = she gave me a book, 2- Iread it)

sentence 2- Past Perfect for an action completed before another action in the past (1 = Iread a book, 2- she gave me a copy of the same book)

It can be helpful to explain the use of narrative tenses in a visual way with timelines. Write the three sentences from number 1 in exercise 2 on the board. Underline the tenses and elicit the names from the class. Also check comprehension of the contraction we'd (= we had).

When I arrived, past-----

she cooked dinner.

Past ____ ____X ¥ ------- --Present

she was cooking dinner.

---___'lXr------Present she 'd cooked dinner.

3 _11_ [CD 3: Track 5] Elicit the matching line for number 1 as an example. Give students time to complete the task, working individually.

Let students check their answers in pairs before playing the recording as a final check.

Answers and tapescript

1 Iwas nervous on the plane because I'd never flown before.

2 When I'd had breakfast, Iwent to work.

3 Imet a girl at a party. Her face was familiar. Iwas sure I'd seen her somewhere before.

4 Ifelt tired all yesterday because Ihadn't slept the night before. S My wife was angry with me because I'd forgotten our anniversary.

6 The little girl was crying because she'd fallen over and hurt herself.

UNIT 9 You'd never believe it! TB pm

Materials: One copy of the worksheet cut in half for each pair of students.

Procedure: Explain that students are going to do a dictation activity and then reorder the dictated text to form two short news stories. Briefly review the tenses students can expect to use in the dictation stage - the Past Simple, the Past Continuous, and the Past Perfect.

• Put students into AIB pairs and hand out the relevant half of the worksheet to each student. Pre-teach/check

Unit 9 • Time for astory 115

masked, to grab, garden path, wealthy, widow, disillusioned, consumer society, to barter (to exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using money), publisher.

• Make sure students are positioned so that they can't see each other's worksheet. Briefly review the

punctuation marks: full stop, comma, open quotation mark, close quotation mark, capital (H). Also review language students may need when during the dictation stage: Can you repeat that? How do you spell that? Is that double or single (r)? Is that a new sentence?

• Tell students that the stories are divided across sentences so that a dictated section may end midsentence. Demonstrate the activity by getting an A student to dictate their first section to student B, who should write the lines in the space provided.

• Students take it in turns to dictate their lines and write them in the spaces provided. Monitor and help as necessary.

• When they have finished the dictation stage, they can check their wording against their partner's worksheet.

• Get students to work out the order of the lines to form the two news stories. Remind students to look carefully at the first and last word of each section, and at the punctuation, to help them make the links. Monitor and help as necessary.

• Get students to read the stories aloud to make sure they have ordered the lines correctly.

Answers Student A

la 2n 3g 4h 5k 6b Ji 8j

APolish woman couldn't believe it when her dog came home after being stolen nearly 50 kilometres away. Edyta Kowalska had gone to Warsaw for the day with her dog, Cherry. While they were walking down the road, a car suddenly stopped and three masked men jumped out. After they'd grabbed the dog, they drove off. 'It was terrifying. Ithought they were going to attack me,' said Edyta. 'Ireported it to the police, but Idon't think they took it seriously.' Edyta spent five days looking out for Cherry. Then suddenly she saw the dog coming up the garden path. 'Icouldn't believe it. She was a bit thin, but she had got home. That's all that matters.'

1f 20 3c 41 5m 6d Jp 8e

AGerman grandmother has said she's healthier, wealthier, and happier since giving up cash 15 years ago. Heidemarie Schwermer, a widow, gave up her home in Dortmund in 1996 after her children had left. She left her home because she was feeling disillusioned with the consumer SOCiety. She now travels around with just a suitcase, laptop, and mobile phone. 'I can live without money. Ican get everything Ineed by bartering and getting presents,' she said. She has written a

book about her lifestyle. After her publishers had offered her a cash payment, she suggested the money went to charity. 'It can make many people happy instead of just one,' she said.

• As an extension, give students a few moments to think of a possible title for each story. Students compare their ideas and vote for the best title.

116 Unit 9 • Time for astory

Workbook Unit 9

Ex. 1-3 Past Perfect

THE SHEPHERD BOY (SB p72)

See TB p1l3 for notes on Aesop's fables. Students may be familiar with the tale of the shepherd boy who tricks local villagers into thinking a wolf is attacking his flock. The moral of the story is also a familiar one - don't tell lies; even if a liar tells the truth, no one believes them. The story starts with the expression Once upon a time. which is traditionally used at the beginning of children's stories to mean 'a long time ago' or 'in the past:

& POSSIBLE PROBLEMS

This is the first time that a number of conjunctions have been brought together in a grammar presentation.

Students may have problems with choosing the correct conjunction in context and also with word order.

The conjunctions of time covered in this section are: when, while, as soon as, after, before, as, and until. They can go at the start of the sentence or in the middle when used to join two clauses.

• We use when, as soon as, before, and after to say that things happen one after another or in a sequence.

• We use when, while, and (just) as to say that things happen at the same time. These are often used with a continuous form, especially for longer actions.

• We use until to mean 'up to the time when:

Result and reason

So introduces a result or consequence; because introduces a reason.

He was bored so he went for a walk. (cause ----. result)

He went for a walk because he was bored.

But and although both express contrast, Although is more formal than but, and is often used in more formal writing.

• But joins two clauses. It must go before the second clause.

• Although joins two clauses. It can go at the start of the sentence, in which case a comma separates the clauses. (It can also go in the middle of the sentence, in which case it is preceded by a comma.) Although can express a surprising contrast.

1 Focus attention on the heading to the fable and on the pictures. Pre-teach/check shepherd, hill, wolf, sheep, to lie

(= not tell the truth), to kill.

Write Once upon a time. on the board and elicit the start of the story as a class. Put students in pairs to

continue telling the story from the pictures. Monitor and help as necessary. Check students take turns to describe the action of the story.

1 'X. [CD 3: Track 6] Pre-teach/check to shout, to smile, to believe, to set (of the sun), to appear, to attack, terror, ashamed.

Read the story as a class as far as. had an idea and elicit the first linking word. Give students time to complete the task, working individually. With weaker students, you could go through the task and analyse the use of the linkers as a class.

Put students in pairs to check their answers. Ask students what they think the moral of the story is. Play the recording and let students check their answers.

Ask students if they think the story is a good way of teaching the moral about being honest.

Answers and tapescript The boy who cried wolf

Once upon a time there was a shepherd boy who looked after the sheep in the hills near his village. He thought his job was very boring. One day, (l) while he was sitting under a tree, he had an idea. He decided to have some fun, (2) so he went down to the village and shouted 'Wolf! Wolf!' at the top of his voice.

(3) As soon as the villagers heard the boy, they stopped work and raced to the hills to help him. But (4) when they got there, they saw nothing. They returned to their work. (S) After they'd gone, the shepherd boy smiled to himself.

Afew days later, the boy did the same thing again. He ran into the village and shouted 'Wolf! Wolf!' The villagers didn't know whether to believe him or not, but they were worried about their sheep (6) so they had to help him. They went back to the hills. Again there was no wolf. They were angry (J) because the shepherd boy had lied again, but he just laughed.

Then, the next day, just (8) as the sun was setting, a wolf really did appear, and it began attacking the sheep. In terror, the boy raced down the hill to the village, shouting 'Wolf! Wolf! ' (9) Although the villagers heard his cries, they did nothing to help. This time they really didn't believe him.

The shepherd boy climbed back up the hill to look for the sheep, but the wolf had killed them all. He was so ashamed of himself that he sat down in the moonlight and cried.

The moral of this story is. You should not lie. Aliar will not be believed, even when he tells the truth.

3 Elicit the first answer as an example. Encourage students :1ot to look back at the text as they complete the answers.

Check the answers with the class.

While he was sitting under a tree. As soon as they heard the boy. After the villagers had gone.

As the sun was setting.

1/2 Read the notes as a class. Then ask students to look for other examples of the conjunctions in the story in exercise 2.

Grammar Reference 9.2 p144

4 This stage consolidates the use of the conjunctions. Get students to do the task without looking back at the story.

Check the answers.

1 They didn't find the wolf, so they went back to work.

2 They helped the boy because they were worried about their sheep. 3 Although they heard his cries, they didn't do anything to help.

S Focus attention on the prompts and the pictures, and elicit the beginning of the story.

Put students in pairs to continue telling the story. Monitor and help as necessary. Check for accurate use of the tenses and conjunctions. Note down any common errors and highlight and correct these after the pairwork.

PRACTICE (5B p73)

1 _. [CD 3: Track 7] Ask students to read the pairs of sentences. Check comprehension of naughty, to burn food, and supper. Elicit the complete sentence for number 1 as an example. Point out that the conjunction can come at the start of the sentence or in the middle, e.g. When I'd done my homework, I went to bed'!I went to bed when I'd done my homework. Give students time to complete the task indiVidually. Remind students that one verb needs to be in the Past Perfect. Monitor and help as necessary.

Play the recording and let students compare their answers.

If you want students to have further pronunciation practice, get them to read the sentences aloud.

Answers and tapescript Discussing grammar

1 When I'd done my homework, Iwent to bed.

2 After I'd driven two hundred miles, Istopped for a coffee. 3 As soon as she'd passed her driving test, she bought a car. 4 Ididn't go to Italy until I'd learned Italian.

S Although I'd read the book, Ididn't understand the film. 6 His mother sent him to bed because he'd been naughty. J She'd burnt the food, so we went out to eat.

8 She cooked a lovely supper, but unfortunately I'd eaten a large lunch.

2 Pre-teach/check to shave, to retire, to wake up, and to lock the doors. Elicit the correct word in sentence 1 as an example. Give students time to complete the task.

Let students check their answers in pairs before checking with the class.

-2 .11_ [CD 3: Track 9] Tell students they are now going to hear Alice talking about the life and work of Robert Louis Stevenson. Elicit a few guesses about the writer from the class but don't confirm or reject students' ideas at this stage.

Focus attention back on the chart and remind students to listen for the key information to complete it. Play the recording as far as. nineteenth century as an example. Play the rest of the recording and let students complete as much of the chart as they can. Put students in pairs to compare their answers. Play the recording again to allow

tudents to check/complete their answers.

Elicit any other information students understood about the two writers. Ask if they have read any of the books mentioned, and what they thought of them.

Answers and tapescript

Robert Louis Stevenson

second half of nineteenth century

novels, poetry, and also a travel writer

Reasons for success

great story teller; wrote about

adventure, danger, and horror

The Strange Case of OrJekyll and

Dr Jekyllhas a battle inside himself

between his good side and his evil

often ill as a child; married an

American woman with children from

earlier marriage; no children together;

travelled a lot; died very young -

11- My favourite writer I = Interviewer A = Alice

I Now, Alice. You chose Robert Louis Stevenson. Tell us about him. When was he writing?

A Well, he was born in 1850, and he died in 1894, so he was writing just after Dickens, in the second half of the nineteenth century.

I And. what did he write?

A He wrote novels, and poetry, and he was also a travel writer. I Oh! Quite a lot! Tell us. why is he famous?

A Well, he isn't as famous as Dickens. But he's very popular because he's a great story teller. His stories are about adventure, danger, and horror. His heroes are pure, and his villains are dark.

What are his best-known books?

A There's a children's book called Treasure Island, and there's a travel story about going around France, but the most famous is The Strange Case of OrJekyll and Mr Hyde.

And they, l suppose, are his most well-known characters?

A Yes. The book was an immediate success. It's about a man who has two sides to his character, one good and one bad. The man, Dr Jekyll, has a battle inside himself between his good side and his evil side. This is the psychological idea of someone with a split personality?

A Yes. In everyday speech we say about someone 'Oh, he's a real Jekyll and Hyde', meaning there are two sides to their personality.

I Fascinating! Tell us about his personal life.

A As a child he was often ill. He married an American woman who had children from an earlier marriage, but they didn't have any children together. He travelled a lot. to Europe and the United States. He died very young, when he was just 44.

Well, thank you, Alice, for telling us about Robert Louis Stevenson.

Give a brief description of a book that you have read as an example. Give students a few moments to think about their book and write brief notes. Monitor and help as necessary.

With smaller classes, students can describe their books to the whole class. Divide larger classes into groups of three or four. Students describe their book and then invite questions from the rest of the class/their group. If appropriate, students can vote for the book that they think sounds most interesting.

Unit 9 • Time for a story 119

READING AND SPEAKING (SB p74)

This section links back to Listening and speaking section with an adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's novel

The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll /' d3ekll and Mr Hyde.

It also consolidates the grammar from the grammar sections.

First published in 1886, the novel tells the story of a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates the strange relationship between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll and an evil character, Edward Hyde. It transpires that the doctor has created a special potion that turns him from a good person into the evil Mr Hyde. The narrative is often thought to represent the battle between good and evil and the impact of the novel is shown by the use of the phrase 'a Jekyll and Hyde character: meaning a person who seems to have two different personalities, one good and one bad.

Encourage students to use the context to help them with new vocabulary, or use a dictionary when necessary. With weaker classes or if you are short of time, you could pre- teachl check some of following vocabulary: silent/ silence, to attack, to catch (caught Ib:t/, caught), ugly, evil, wretch Iretfl. to show no regret, to write a cheque, well-respected, to mention, to turn pale, to murder, maid, to witness, to strike (struck, struck) (= carry out a violent action without warning), to suspect, wild, voice, master

(n), to lock, laboratory, servant, to sound different, to break down a door, to take poison, to create a potion, cruel, violent, to take pleasure in sth, innocent, to pray, strength, to get rid of, monster.

1 Lead in to the section by asking students what they can remember about Robert Louis Stevenson from the

Listening and speaking section. Write notes on the board and build up a profile of the writer.

Focus attention on the picture story and give students a few moments to get an idea of what it is about. Check the answers to the questions.

1 It's set in London, in 1886.

2 It's a horror story (with elements of crime). 3 It's fiction.

2 Elicit the name of the first character as an example. Then give students time to find the names/roles of the other characters. Set a time limit of a minute to encourage them to focus on just the characters at this stage.

Let students check in pairs before checking with the class.

1 Dr Jekyll l'd3ekll

2 Mr Hyde Ihaldl

3 Gabriel Utterson l'gelbrigl'AtgSgnl

3 I'J'" [CD 3: Track 10] This task divides the story into three sections. Breaking the narrative allows you to chec

comprehension of the plot as you go along, and also creates suspense and interest to read on.

Give students time to read all the questions and deal with any vocabulary queries.

Focus attention on frames 1-3. Play the relevant section of the recording and get students to follow the text in their books. Put students in pairs to answer questions

1-4. Encourage them to use the pictures to help with vocabulary, or they could use a dictionary. Monitor and help with any queries. Check the answers with the class.

Repeat the above procedure for frames 4-7, and then 8-12. Pause the recording after each set offrames to

allow students to talk about their answers in pairs before checking with the class.

Answers and tapescript

1 The attack happened in a dark street in London. My Hyde, a man who looked ugly and evil, attacked a woman. He hit her with a long

wooden stick and kicked her.

2 Mr Hyde showed no regret for what he had done. To buy the woman's silence, he wrote her a cheque.

3 The cheque was signed in the name of Dr Jekyll, a well-known and well-respected man.

4 Dr Jekyll didn't want to answer questions about Mr Hyde and the attack on the woman. Utterson didn't understand who Mr Hyde was and why the cheque from his was signed in the name of Dr Jekyll.

1 Ayear later a murder took place on another dark street in London. My Hyde murdered an old man while he was walking home. He used the same stick as the attack on the woman. Amaid witnessed the

crime and recognized Mr Hyde.

2 He suspected that Dr Jekyll had helped Mr Hyde to escape.

3 He said that Hyde would never return.

4 Dr Jekyll's behaviour became more and more unusual. He locked himself in his laboratory and refused to open the door. His servants were worried because when they heard his voice, it sounded different.

5 When they broke down the door, they found Mr Hyde lying dead on the floor. He had taken poison. He wearing Dr Jekyll's clothes but there was no sign of the doctor.

1 Dr Jekyll said he believed that inside every human being there was a good side and an evil side.

2 When Jekyll drank the potion. his whole body changed. The good, kind doctor became cruel, ugly, and evil. To change back from Mr Hyde, he had to drink another potion.

3 He enjoyed being bad.

4 His attacks became more and more violent. He took pleasure in hurting innocent people.

5 He began to change into My Hyde without taking the potion. Jekyll hoped that Hyde would disappear, but he always returned. The potion to turn Hyde back into Dr Jekyll no longer worked as it had lost its strength.

6 Dr Jekyll couldn't get rid of Mr Hyde, so to kill the evil man, he had to die, too.

120 Unit 9 • Time for a story