Night of the Long Knives - some SA leaders are demanding that the Nazi party carry out its socialist agenda, and that the SA take over the army. Hitler cannot afford to annoy the businessmen or the army, so the SS [ SS. Also known as the Blackshirts. A German police/ military style organisation created to serve as the personal bodyguards of Adolf Hitler. In Hitler's Germany they eventually controlled the intelligence, security and police forces, and extermination of those they considered undesirable. ] murders perhaps 400 of the SA members, including its leader Röhm, along with a number of Hitler's other opponents.
Führer - when Hindenburg dies, Hitler declares himself jointly president, chancellor and head of the army.More detail
If you are asked about how Hitler consolidated his power, remember that the question is not just about describing what happened and what Hitler did. You should explain how Hitler's actions helped him to consolidate his power - it is more about the effects of what he did. The table below describes how certain events that happened between 1933 and 1934 gave Hitler the opportunity to consolidate power.Events and results 1933-1934
Hitler used the fire to his advantage in two ways:
Both these actions helped the Nazis to win more seats in the election.
When the courts convicted Dutch Communist van der Lubbe, but did not convict other Communist leaders, Hitler was furious and replaced the courts with the Nazi People's Courts.
Although it did not give the Nazis the majority that Hitler had hoped for in the Reichstag, it gave them enough seats - after Hitler had arrested all the communist deputies and the other parties had been intimidated by the SA - to get the Enabling Act passed, which is all Hitler needed to do.
Arguably the critical event - it gave Hitler absolute power to make his laws.
This put the Nazis in control of local government, and allowed the Gestapo to rule by terror .
Abolishing the trade unions allowed Hitler to destroy a group that might have opposed him. It also gave Hitler the opportunity to set up the German Labour Front. which gave him control over German workers.
Hitler's agreement with the Pope was a temporary truce that allowed Hitler to ban the Catholic Zentrum party without opposition from the Catholic Church.
Banning political parties made Germany a one-party state and destroyed democracy in the country.
After this action, Germans could no longer get rid of Hitler in an election.
These were set up to give Hitler greater control over the judgements made in courts. Hitler was furious because the courts did not sentence the communists to death for starting the Reichstag fire.
Night of the Long Knives
This destroyed all opposition within the Nazi Party. It gave power to the brutal SS. It also showed the rest of the world what a tyrant Hitler was.
This formally made Hitler the absolute ruler of Germany.
Many historians believe that Nazi Germany only appeared to be a dictatorship. In fact, officials were left to make most of the decisions themselves, and the Nazi government was badly-organised, and chaotic.Hitler and the army
It is important to note that in 1934, the army was not subject to Hitler's authority. At this point, he still needed the army's support, which is why he destroyed the SA in the Night of the Long Knives.
In 1938, army leaders hoped Hitler's plan to conquer the Sudetenland would fail and give them an opportunity to depose [ Depose. To remove a ruler or monarch. ] him. When he suceeded, their attempt to get rid of him fell apart, and Hitler dismissed the chief of staff and 60 other generals. Thereafter, the army was also subservient to Hitler.Activity and answer preparation
To familiarise yourself with Hitler's actions 1933-1934, play the activity 'Opening the doorways to power' to see if you can remember the sequence of events that consolidated Hitler's power.
Can you open the doors to power for Hitler?Answer preparation
As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain:
The question 'Why Hitler came to power' (ie how he became chancellor in January 1933) is completely different to 'How did Hitler consolidated his power' (ie how he took absolute power in 1933-1934). Make sure you do not misinterpret questions, which may not be worded so clearly. The key is to look carefully at the dates in the question.
How and Why Hitler and the Nazis Came to Power in Germany
Before the Great War in 1914 Germany was a rich and prospering
country. The end of the war in 1918 and between 1933 reduced Germany
to a weak and struggling country. There are many reasons for the fall
and rise of Germany during this time, which ultimately results in the
rise of Hitler and the Nazis.
After the war Germany found defeat in the First World War difficult to
accept. Their did not accept that they had been truly defeated: they
thought their government had been 'stabbed in the back' by left-wing
Germans who lacked patriotism.
There were many problems that arise from the war, these were matters,
which the German Empire was responsible, but for which the 'November
criminals' took the blame.
The Germans were forced to sign the diktat' of Versailles in 1919.
This made Germany very weak financially because there were charged
extremely high reparations, £6 500 million. It also became
economically weak because there suffered losses in materials; there
followed poverty and serious food shortages; also the reparations had
to be paid of in materials as well as money. Germany had lost its
empire, these places formally owned by Germany were know called
mandates. They were going to be run by the League of Nations. Germany
had also lost all moral and national pride because of the defeat and
the 'war guilt clause' which was part of the Treaty. The Rhineland was
demilitarised because it was close enough to France and Belgium for
Germany to invade, its armed forces were reduced to 100,000 men, o.
. middle of paper.
. ar republic as weak and useless. They left the
impression that they did not no how to handle the depression,
unemployment, falling wages and poverty. People also thought that
because Germany was a democracy it was weak, people started to not
like being a democracy. People turned to groups like Hitler's Nazis
who promised strong government and better life.
Many Germans found Nazism appealing; Hitler had a good speaking style
and passionately believed he was right. When Hitler had first been
publicised he and his party wasn't very organised, but when they
appeared again they had uniforms and were organised. The money and
support he had got from the middle/upper class and businessmen help
him create a good image. When he was in public there was often use of
searchlights, which were the height of technology at that time.
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Hitler was appointed Chancellor on the 30th of January 1933, with only two other Nazis in the Cabinet, this was though to be enough to control him, by Van Papen and the conservatives. Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to hold new elections in March 1933, in the hope he would gain an over all majority. However in the new elections Hitler controlled Prussia through GÃÂ¶ring (Cabinet Minister) and the other two fifths of Germany through Frick (the other Cabinet Minister). With Nazi appointed police chiefs and local government heads, the Nazis had the legal power to intimidate the electorate. By the end of February 1933 Hitler was Chancellor and in control of police and local government, all legally and not within the spirit of the constitution.
On the 27th of February 1933 a half-mad Dutch Communist called Van der Lubbe was found wondering in the ashes of the burning Reichstag. This provided the Nazis with the opportunity to persuade Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree (composed by Frick) on February the 28th, suspending civil liberties and allowing the central Government to run regional governments deemed unable to run them selves.
By the end of April, twenty five thousand people had been taken into 'protective custody' in Prussia alone. Under the decree Frick was able to 'take over' areas not already controlled by GÃÂ¶ring. Because of the 'suicide clause' these actions were legal however they were definitely not within the democratic spirit of the constitution.
In the Reichstag elections of March 1933 the Nazis increased their control from 33.1% in December 1932 to 43.9%. This increase can be attributed to the Nazis strong stance on Communism. The Nazis were known for their hatred of Communism, the middle class voted Nazi because of that policy. Joseph Goebbels' propaganda machine was also very good.Citation styles:
To what extent did Hitler come to power legally? How did Hitler came to power. (2002, August 01). In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 07:57, February 26, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/extent-did-hitler-come-power-legally-did-hitler-came-power
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WriteWork contributors, "To what extent did Hitler come to power legally? How did Hitler came to power?," WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/extent-did-hitler-come-power-legally-did-hitler-came-power (accessed February 26, 2017)Reviews of: "To what extent did Hitler come to power legally? How did Hitler came to power?" :
Your essay was out of my league, if u haven't submitted this, go for it, your teacher would probably understand it,fantastic essay! Hitler got what he deserved.
7 out of 8 people found this comment useful.
1933? Essay, Research Paper
Noakes and Pridham have called the August-December period of 1932 ?the crisis
months? in the ?Nazis struggle for power. However, there are also many other
contributing factors prior to this which are very much concerned with Hitler?s
final seizure of power in January 1933. History has proved that dramatic change
comes only through both strong revolutionaries, and more importantly, weak or
unpopular existing rulers. So how far was Hitler and his party responsible for
their rise to power, and how much of the blame must be put on the leaders of
the Weimar Republic? This essay aims to identify the key factors in Hitler?s
rise to power, both in his own successes and in the government?s short-comings,
and why they were important to it.
The election of May 1928 had resulted in unexpected defeat for the NSDAP ?
100,000 fewer votes than in 1924 and only 12 seats. Now the strategy had to
change. Hitler called for ?a switch in priorities from the cities to the countryside?
(Bullock). In the autumn of 1928, the party assumed its first role in national
politics with its campaign against the Young Plan in alliance with Hugenburg
and the DNVP. The depression was beginning to add to the growing ?crisis of
the bourgeois parties? and Hitler saw that this was his chance. Nazi appeals
for unity and authority in the state proved successful in the unnecessary election
unwisely called by Bruning, the new chancellor, in September 1930. The Nazis
gained 18.6& of the popular vote, securing 107 seats and becoming the second
largest party in the Reichstag.
Hitler?s party had made its breakthrough into national politics; now he had
to find a way to convert popular support into a national Socialist government
led by himself. As Bullock suggests, he could use his popular support to press
for inclusion in the government and the threat of the SA violence if he was
excluded. Hitler acted shreudly, leaving all his options open (a Reichstag majority,
a coup, Authoritarian Rule by Article 48) while steadily pursuing his goal and
using his remarkable ability to retain the confidence of his often restive supporters
with the help of the growing ?Hitler myth. which served as a substitute for
a detailed programme.
At this time, Hitler was supported by four significant factors. Firstly, there
was the intensification of the depression, and secondly, the result of this
was an increasing support for radical left and radical right parties from the
electorate. Thirdly, there was the Reichswehr?s dislike of the Republic, caused
primarily by Hindenburg?s pursuit of political stability in order to advance
rearmament. Finally, the people had a massive disapproval for the prominence
of presidential rather than parliamentary government. Whilst Hitler may have
failed to win the Presidency in April 1932, his vote in the second ballot was
as high as 13.4 million. it would seem that a large percentage of the population
had realised that desperate times call for desperate measures, and with unemployment
consistently rising, perhaps Hitler?s eventual role was, by this stage, an inevitability.
Furthermore, the election in June made the NSDAP the largest party in the Reichstag
with 13, 745,00 votes and 230 seats. in four ?depressing? years the party had
gained 13.5 million votes.
Where had this new support for national Socialism come from? Most historians
afree that it was largely from the middle class (the Mittelstand) which may
be subdivided into the old Mittelstand (artisans, small retailers, peasant farmers)
and the new (white-collar workers, teachers, civil servants(somewhat surprising
seeing as this group incorporated the best part of Germany?s academic body)).
Many of the former, who became the core of the Nazi support, had joined the
movement before 1929; the latter ?helped to boost the Nazi vote. to 13.5
million in 1932? (Lee). Blue-collar workers remained remarkably loyal to the
SDP and the KDP because of their membership of the trade unions; the upper classes
were sometimes attracted by Hitler?s anti-communist stance, but the chief support
from the wealthy came after Hitler was appointed Chancellor. To some extent
the appeal of Nazism transcended class barriers altogether? (Lee): Protestants,
women, the young were all attracted by 1932. But in spite of the vast increase
in their vote, the Nazis still lacked a majority which could give them the automatic
During the ?crisis months? which followed, the refusal of Hindenburg and von
Papen to offer anything more than the Vice-Chancellorship on 13 August was to
put great strain on party loyalties. Somehow Hitler was able to preserve the
policy of legality, in the face of its apparent failure, even after the resignation
of Gregor Strasser which badly dented party morale. The fighting of yet another
election in November, when the NSDAP vote dropped by two million and the KPD
vote increased significantly, was a further blow. It is hardly surprising to
read Goebbels reflection at Christmas of ?this year has brought us everlasting
However, it would seem that the tide was turning. The new Chancellor, Schleicher,
had failed to gain the mass support which he had promised Hindenburg, with his
policy based on backing from the trade unions and the ?moderate? Nazis under
Strasser. Von Papen was determined to bring him down and was now ready to see
Hitler as Chancellor. They reached an agreement on 4 January, but it took almost
another month of tortuous negotiations before Hindenburg?s suspicion of the
Bavarian corporal? could be overcome, Hugenburg?s economic conditions satisfied
and the Reichswehr?s support ensured by the appontment of the pro-Nazi von Blomberg
as the Minister of Defence.
Such a remarkable reversal of fortune as brought Hitler to the Chancellorship
on 30 January 1933 caused Goebbels to confide in his diary that ?it all seems
like a fairy story. In conclusion though, it was in fact the result of ?ambitious
and misguided men [who] sought to make history? and were confident, like von
Papen, that Hitler would be ?no danger at all. Nor must Hitler?s own contribution
be forgotten: the steadfast adherence to the policy of legality, the extraordinary
control over the unruly party, the insistence on the Chancellorship, and the
selling of the idea that – in the words of a nazi slogan. National Socialism
is the opposite of what exists today.?
Political Effects of the Wall Street Crash
How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933?
Cue cards / notes / diagrams / posters to explain all the things that helped Hitler come to power!