To learn the fundamentals of Excel
You will use the same data found in this example spreadsheet while putting your name as the fourth student and filling in the *??* with your own information. Record your actual scores (so far). Use your scores from the class web page for the scores that you know; make up scores for yourself for grades on things that have not yet occurred (e.g. the final paper) - an excellent chance for ``What If'' analysis.
Note that you must use your actual scores for any scores that you have received so far. Also note that you must use exactly the data for the ficticious students that is provided in the example.
Pull up a chair. It's time for another addition of Math Homework 101. Today, we're talking about the hundred chart. What is its purpose? And, why on earth is my kid using it so much in class.
If your child is in the early elementary years (kindergarten, 1st, 2nd), chances are you've seen the hundred chart. Hopefully your child's awesome teacher has already sent one home. My daughter has one that stays in her homework binder. If you don't have one, I've got a couple of versions at the end of this post you can download and print.
Let's get down to it!
So, what is the point of the hundred chart? One way you can think about it, is that it's a bulkier version of the number line. It can help your kids learn number sequencing in the higher numbers. They can use it for addition and subtraction help. What's 34 +4? Start at 34 and count 4 spaces to get the answer. What's 57-9? Start at 57 and count backward. In this way, it works exactly the way a number line does.
But, that's not all a hundred chart is useful for. You can use it to see patterns in the numbers. See the highlighted column above. If you find all the numbers that end in a five, you'll see that they're in a straight line. Same with the 6's, 3's, etc. It's a great visual tool for any kid that needs to see something to understand it.
The patterns can also be used to help with skip counting. Suddenly, skip counting becomes more than just memorization. Your child can see the numbers they skip over. They can see the pattern. I've seen kids who struggle with skip counting master it after using the hundred chart for awhile. (And by master it, I mean they are able to skip count without using the the hundred chart for help.)
What else can they learn about numbers with the hundred chart? Take a look at the highlighted squares above. The number in the middle is 55. When you isolate that cross, you can see at a glance what the +1, -1, +10, and -10 facts are. Four sets of math facts at once. That's powerful.
What else can you learn at a glance?
Embrace the hundred chart! It's a valuable tool to help your child understand math.
I plan on sharing other fun ways to use a hundred chart in future posts, so stay tuned. In the meantime, please click below to download and print your own hundred chart. I've included 2 versions. They first is from 1-100 and the other is from 1-120. Many schools (and Common Core standards) are expecting kids to count beyond 100 to 120. Use the chart that best fits your child's needs.
Now that you have your own hundred chart and have learned all about it, it's time to do some fun activities. Try one of these fun ideas:
Hundred Chart Fill-in-the-Blank Puzzles - Can your child figure out the missing numbers by their location on a hundred chart?
Driveway Hundred Chart - Make a giant hundred chart on the driveway and play some fun games.
Ways to Play & Learn with a Hundred Chart - A round-up of fun hundred chart ideas from some of the best kid activities blogs.
Do you have any questions about the hundred chart? Ask your questions in the comment section and I'll answer!
You have a file that contains records of vehicles; your supervisor wants a count of the
different vehicles found on the file and the percentage ratio of each.
There is a code on each record that indicates the type of vehicle, the codes are:
A = automobile
T = trucks
B = buses
M = motorcycles
O = other
The output should be a count for each type of vehicle and the percentage of the total.
Example: automobiles: 25 14%
Trucks 30 15%
Use the symbols in the handout and from the book to create a flowchart
to count and calculate the vehicle percentages.
How do I create a flow chart with NO given numbers or anything? I am so confused please help out ASAP.
---------- Post added at 08:34 PM ---------- Previous post was at 08:31 PM ----------
Can anyone help me PLEASE.
03-18-2013, 01:30 AM
Do a barrel roll!
Do a barrel roll!
What kind of file is it?
I haven't done flow charts in forever so i'll just say what i'd do.
declare 5 variables (cars, trucks, busses, etc) that equal 0.
read 1st vehicle
- if A, add 1 to 'cars'
- if T, add 1 to 'trucks'
- if B, add 1 to 'busses'
then read the next vehicle. keep going until there are no vehicles.
at the end you'll have 5 variables with numbers corresponding to how many there are, ex:
cars = 4
trucks = 2
busses = 1
just add them up and divide for the percentagePosting Permissions
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- CAREFULLY fill out your scantron form before you come to the final exam. Be sure you have your RedID filled in correctly (and dark enough). Do not use a bent or crumpled ParSCORE scantron form - if the machine can't read it, you can't earn any points on the final exam.
- See Class News for details about the final exam.
- The last MasteringAstonomy homework set is due on Wednesday at 9 pm.
- Read Ch 15 (the last chapter!)
- Begin studying for the final exam.
- The last MasteringAstonomy homework set is due on Wednesday at 9 pm. As decided upon by our in-class vote, this is an extra long homework set, so please don't wait until the last minute.
- Read Ch 14 "Galaxies"
- Read Ch 13 "The Milky Way"
- The next MasteringAstonomy HW #10 (the last one) will be due on Wednesday May 4th.
- Begin studying for Exam #3 next Friday.
- The MasteringAstronomy homework #9 (covering chapters 9-12) is due on Friday before class (the exam).
- Read Chapter 12 "Black Holes"
- Begin studying for Exam #3 next Friday.
- The next MasteringAstronomy homework is due before the exam.
- MasteringAstronomy homework due on Friday before class.
- Read Chapters 10 and 11
- Be sure you have examined/explored NASA's SpaceWeather.com website
- Read Chapter 10 "Star Formation and Evolution"
- MasteringAstronomy homework.
- Read Chapter 9 "Measuring the Stars"
- Next MasteringAstronomy homework set due on Friday April 15. The assignment will be available Saturday night (Apr 9th).
- Explore the website: SpaceWeather.com
- Read Chapter 8
- Explore the website Spaceweather.com
- Read Ch 8 "The Sun"
- MasteringAstromomy HW due on Friday
- Reminder: read/examine/explore/study NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission and the Solar System Exploration websites
- Study for Exam #2.
Written Homework #2 (due Mon Mar 21):
Part 1: Observe the Sky:
Observe Jupiter and compare with the star Regulus in the constellation Leo, and with Sirius. What colors are they? Which twinkles most/least? Which is brightest/faintest? Be sure to include date and time of your observations.
Part 2: Suppose a new planet is discovered with an orbital period of 200 years. How far is it from the Sun? Fully explain how you got your answer. Explain why you are doing what you are doing. Show all work.
Part 3: Collisions between asteroids and the Moon can occur at speeds of up to
75 km/sec. (i) How fast is this in miles per hour? (show all work).
(ii) Comment on the significance of this. Explain why is this important? (A single paragraph is sufficient.)
- Read Chapter 7
- Read Chapter 6
- Finish reading Chapter 4
- Read Chapter 4.
- Examine NASA's new "Solar System Exploration" website.
- Review your exam for the "post mortem" on Wednesday. We will go over parts of the exam, and if there are any questions that you had difficulty with, let me know via email (or if we have time, you can ask in class).
- Study for Exam #1 on Friday.
- Fill out your name, Red ID, etc. on your ParSCORE scantron form.
- MasteringAstronomy HW#4 dues on Wednesday.
- Fill out the basic information on your ParSCORE scantron form before the exam. See "Class News and Information" for instructions. Be sure to put your Red ID on both sides. (Don't enter your phone number - I don't want it!) Carefully enter your information - errors may cause a delay in grading the exams and will cost you 1 point per error.
- Reminder: You may lose a point off your exam for every error on the scantron form. This can add up quickly! So please carefully fill out your Red ID, etc..
- Written HW #1 due Monday.
- Study for Exam #1.
- Fill out the basic information on your ParSCORE scantron form before the exam. See "Class News and Information" for instructions. Be sure to put your Red ID on both sides.
- MasteringAstronomy HW #4 due next Wednesday (Feb 24).
- Written Homework #1 Observe the Sky:
Due Monday Feb 24. Must be typed and use college-level English.
Look carefully at the stars Sirius, Betelgeuse, Rigel, and Aldebaran.
1. What colors do these stars appear to be to you?
2. Compare their twinking. Which twinkles the most? The least?
Be sure to record the time and date of your observation.
Plagiarism Warning: Do NOT copy from the textbook, websites, or anywhere else! Do not try to look up this answer. Copying from anywhere will result in automatically failing this homework and possibly require me to report the cheating to the Center for Student Rights and Responsibilities. The only way to do this homework is to look at the sky and report what you notice. The observations should only take about 10 minutes once you know where the stars are.
- Observe the waxing moon this week.
- Study for Exam #1.
- For Exam 1, you will need a pink ParSCORE Enrollment form (the big 6"x11" version), pencils and eraser. Calculators are okay, but not smartphones, ipads, etc.
- Read Chapter 9.1 - 9.3.
- Begin studying for Exam #1
The new moon occurs today. Over the next 2 weeks notice the waxing phases of the Moon. Pay attention to the shape and the position of the Moon in the sky with respect to the Sun, the time, the horizon, and stars like Sirius, Rigel, and Betelgeuse.
- Review Chapter 2 on matter, light, and telescopes.
- MasteringAstronomy homework set #2 due on Friday (before class starts).
- Finish reading Chapter 3.
- Think about why we have seasons, phases of the moon, and eclipses. It is very hard to learn these by just reading - you need to pause and think and visualize what is going on.
- Don't forget to make use of the Astronomy Help Room and planetarium.
- Begin reading Chapter 3
- The first homework assignment on MasteringAstronomy is due on Friday Jan 29 (before class time).
- Read Ch 2
- Attend planetarium show if possible. Be sure to reserve a spot ahead of time and sign in. See Class News and Info web page for details.
- Please note: The planetarium is not ADA compliant - our deepest regrets! Contact me if you need assistance, and I'll do my best to help.
Jan 20 and 22
+ Get registered with MasteringAstronomy.com
+ Read Chapter 1 in the textbook.
+ Examine all of the textbook to know what's in there and what we'll be covering this semester. Be sure to look at the appendicies.
+ Find the constellation Orion in the sky. Orion is easily visible at around 6 to 9 pm, overhead and somewhat towards the south. Notice the colors of the stars in Orion. Use the star charts in the textbook to help you. The star Sirius (in the constellation Canis Major - the big dog) can help you find Orion. Sirius should be easy to find because it is the brightest star visible from Earth (besides the Sun!). Try to locate the stars Betelgeuse and Rigel in Orion and notice their colors. Note: There are star charts in your textbook and good star charts can be found on-line. Or try to use an app on your cellphone/tablet. Some work well, and some are awful. A lot depends on how good the GPS and magnetic sensors in your device are working.
+ Observe the sky throughout the semester. Notice the position of the Moon, planets, and stars. The full Moon is on Saturday Jan 23. Notice the lunar phases and where the moon is in the sky at various times of the night over the course of the semester.
Written Homework Policy:
To be accepted for credit, the following rules apply for homework that is handed in (i.e. not via the on-line MasteringAstronomy website):
- Homework must be typed though numerical problems can be hand-written if near. Sloppy homework will not be accepted.
- Multiple pages must be stapled together.
- Homework must be turned in - emailed homework will not be accepted.
- Homework is due at the *start* of class. If you come in late, put it on the table quietly. Do not interrupt/disrupt the lecture!
- All material submitted for a grade must be written in proper English, at a level appropriate for a college course. Write complete and full sentences for all questions that are not purely mathematical in nature.
- Show all work when doing calculations. Just writing down the answer is insufficient and will earn no credit. Showing your work allows me to give partial credit if the numerical values are incorrect, and it is the only way to see if you know how to do the problem (i.e. the method, not the answer).
- All homework must be done independently. You can work together in a team (and I encourage that), but you cannot turn in identical (or almost identical) answers.
Written homework assignments are graded on the following scale:
A = excellent work; full and thorough answers; no incorrect answers and no English errors
B = good work, only very minor errors; very few English errors
C = acceptable work, but more than one incorrect answer or error
D = poor work; several incorrect answers; needs much improvement
F = major problems or not submitted
Problem and observational questions are worth much more than multiple choice questions.
For each class day late, a letter grade is deducted from the homework.
Sometimes we will go over the answers of the homework in class on the day it is due. Any homework question that is discussed or answered in class will not earn any credit if turned in late.
Remember that the homework counts as 20% of your course grade, as much as the exams and the final exam! Be sure to earn that 20%; it is not hard and it greatly helps you learn the material. Inadequate effort on the homework is the number one reason for poor grades in this course.
Reminder: Committing plagiarism is a VERY serious offense.
``. an appropriate penalty, even severance from the University and in some cases revocation of an advanced degree. '' (see SDSU's General Catalog). Plagiarism and cheating are at the top of the list of reasons for expulsion, suspension and probation of students. NEVER copy directly out of the textbook, or any other source. Take a look at the SDSU Academic Dishonesty Incident Form (in .pdf format) if you want to see what comes next when plagiarism occurs. Plagiarism is theft. If you copy more than 4 words in a row from any source (including the textbook) and do not reference that source, you may be committing plagiarism.
Simple Rule: If in doubt, quote the source.
The Universe is How Old.
In the first few weeks of class we’ve spent a lot of time talking about the discovery that the universe is expanding and what this discovery implies. For your 2nd homework, I want you to experience the thrill of discovery for yourself!
As you know, the idea of an expanding universe was first proposed by Edwin Hubble in a famous paper published in 1929. About a decade earlier, V.M. Slipher (an astronomer from Flagstaff, AZ) calculated the velocities for a number of distant objects of unknown nature (the “spiral nebulae”) and found that they were receding and moving much faster than objects in our own galaxy! Not knowing exactly what these objects were, Hubble measured their distances and much to his surprise discovered that they were actually located beyond the Milky Way. Further, when he combined Slipher’s findings with his own measurements he discovered a very special relationship between the distance of a faraway galaxy and the velocity with which it is receding, leading him to conclude that the Universe is expanding. For your assignment, you have the exciting task of exploring this relationship and its implications, but first a bit more background.
How did Hubble & Slipher calculate the velocities of objects (and how do we do this today)? They used the idea of cosmological redshift. Cosmological redshift is an increase in the wavelength of a photon due to the expansion of space. In other words, light from distant galaxies is shifted toward the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum because those galaxies are moving away from us as the Universe expands. Nearly all galaxies display this redshift and there is a direct relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and the velocity with which it is receding. So, if we can measure the redshift, we can determine the velocity. How do we measure redshift? By looking at absorption lines in the spectra (plural of spectrum) of the galaxies and measuring how much those spectral lines are shifted from where they would be if the galaxy were not moving.
Now, the more the lines are shifted, the higher the velocity of the object. This can be expressed as an equation involving three variables:
1. the speed of light, c = 300000 km/s
2. velocity of the galaxy, v. expressed in km/s
3. redshift, z
where z = (the wavelength of the Object minus the wavelength of the Sun)/wavelength of the Sun.
As we discussed in class, z=v/c, or rearranging the expression v=z*c. So, we can use the redshift of spectral lines to calculate a velocity for receding galaxies!
Once Hubble had velocities for his galaxies, he was able to construct a diagram of recession velocity vs. distance. Looking at his diagram, Hubble noticed that the larger the distance to a galaxy, the faster it was receding. Hubble realized that this relationship was consistent with an expanding universe. Further, if everything is moving farther apart as time moves forward then if we go backward in time, everything would be closer together. This is consistent with the Universe originating in an explosion from a single point –THE BIG BANG. The relationship also implies an AGE OF THE UNIVERSE!!
Selecting 10 Galaxies of your choice from your book, you will find their distances, redshifts, & velocities and calculate your own age for the Universe!
This assignment has 5 parts:
Part 1. Choose 5 galaxies from p. 300-309 of your text and 5 galaxy clusters from p.318-323 (for a total of 10 objects) with the following stipulation: Do not choose Andromeda, Sagittarius Dwarf, Triangulum, or the Local Group (you’ll see why in part 5).
Set up an Excel (or Numbers if you are a mac user) spreadsheet and create a table containing columns for the galaxy (or cluster) name, distance, redshift, and velocity. If you are not comfortable using Excel, check out the LITS help pages or take their Excel workshop. Make sure your table has column headings that include units where appropriate! Enter the distance to each of your galaxies in ly (light years) in the distance column.
Now if we had a nice big telescope and spectrograph at our disposal I might be inclined to send you out to observe your galaxies and measure the redshift but luckily, you don’t have to do that - you can benefit from the results of other scientists’ work! (Have I not been professing that science is a collaborative process??) This website is a large database of compiled literature on all extragalactic objects with confirmed names, positions, and redshifts. Simply enter the name of your object under input parameters and hit enter (or click submit). You should see a very simple text based table under the first horizontal line and the 7th entry is the redshift:
Record these redshifts in your table. In some cases, the name that comes up may be different - you can always check the “catalog numbers in your book (listed just above the distance) to make sure they are really the same object. You can also do your search using the catalog numbers instead of the name.
By the end of step 1, your table should look something like this:
Part 2. Before we can calculate the age of the universe, we need to get the velocities from the redshifts! Remember, v=c*z, z has no units, and c=300000 km/s so all we have to do is multiply c and z and we’ll get the velocity in km/s!
To do this in excel, you want to use the function capability. Select the first cell in the velocity column (D2 in my case) and hit the function button. This should pop up a window (usually called formula editor) which will allow you to type in a formula. C is my redshift column so to get the velocity for object 2, I just need to enter =C2*300000. Then to repeat the calculation for the other 2 objects (9 in your case) you just need to select the remaining cells in column D and use the “fill down” function (under the insert menu) which should do all of the math for you! (Again, get help from LITS or me or your TAs if you have trouble.)
By the end of step 2, your table should look something like this:
The completed table is what you need to turn in for steps 1 and 2 (20 points)
Part 3. Now you need to plot the distance and velocity to see if the Universe is still expanding! Select the distance column (column B here) and the velocity column (column D here) and go to Insert > Chart which will bring up the Chart Wizard. From the Chart Type list select XY Scatter. Once the graph pops up, you should title it "Hubble Diagram." Also make sure you label your axes with the correct variable and units. Note that by default Excel will put the first column you select on the x-axis and the scond column on the y-axis so make sure you put them in the right order in your table. If you don’t remember which variable goes on which axis, check your notes from class or read the section on expanding space in your book (p42-43).
The completed graph (Hubble Diagram!) is what you need to turn in for step 3 (10 points)
Part 4. You are now ready to calculate your own Hubble constant (Levine constant in my case) and age of the universe. Recall that Hubble’s law is V=Ho*D where V is velocity (units=km/s), Ho is the “your name here” constant (units=km/s/Mly), and D is distance (units=Mly). This is the equation of a line - the same line you’ve constructed in your graph! To find your constant, all you have to do is find the slope of your line and multiply by 1,000,000 to put it in the right units (since there are one million light years in a Mly). Excel & Numbers both have built-in slope functions that work pretty much the same way. Select an empty cell and go to your formula editor (or search on the slope function). You then want to type in the parentheses the Y and X ranges of your table within which you want to find the slope. So my example would look something like this:
When I hit enter, I get my answer in my formerly empty cell (E2):
Of course this is my Hubble constant in km/s/ly but we want the answer in km/s/Mly so all we need to do is multiply the number in E2 by 1,000,000 and we’ll have our constant (25.2 km/s/Mly in my case.)
Finally, to calculate the age of my universe, I just need to find 1/Ho. But hold your horses! If I divide 1/25.2, I get a number less than 1 - that doesn’t make sense for the age of the universe! The reason is that I need those pesky distance units in the constant to cancel out AND I also need to convert the seconds in my Levine constant to years. This can be accomplished by multiplying my answer by the following scale factor: 3x10^11 (that’s scientific notation for 300,000,000,000 or 300 billion!) This will give you an age of the universe in years.
To summarize this calculation:
yourconstant in km/s/Mly = slope*1,000,000
Age of Universe in years = (1/yourconstant)*(3x10^11)
For step 4, you need to turn in your value for the slope of your graph, your value for your constant, and your value for the age of the universe. Make sure to show your work. In addition, knowing that the current best derived value for the Hubble Constant is
21.5 km/s/Mly corresponding to an age of 13.7 billion years, please comment on whether you think your answer makes sense. (10 points)
FYI - Hubble’s original determination of the constant was 160 km/s/Mly.
OPTIONAL EXTRA CREDIT - For a maximum of 5 additional points, derive the scale factor used above.
Hint: The units of the Hubble constant are km/s/Mly. Without using the scale factor, 1/Ho gives Mly/km/s. The scale factor is derived by converting Mly to km and seconds to years and then setting them up so that when you multiply 1/Ho by the scale factor, the units work out to years (km and seconds should cancel.)
Part 5. Go back to the extragalactic database and find the redshift for your choice of the Triangulum, Andromeda, or Sagittarius dwarf galaxies.
For part 5 you need to turn in answers to the following questions (2 points each):
What value did you find?
What do you notice about this value?
What do you think it implies about the motion of this galaxy?
Finally, note that I want each of you to hand in your own assignment, and to answer the questions in your own words. It is perfectly OK (in fact I encourage you!) to work with other students on this assignment and discuss your answers. But in the end I do want the words to be your own. If you do work in a group, please list your group members at the beginning of your write-up.