The main part. The political content of democracy
Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy
Concept of corporate political science, and other varieties of proletarian democracy
Home contradiction of democracy - a contradiction between the idea of democracy as the authority of the people and the impossibility of its practical implementation. The famous British philosopher Karl Popper believed democracy is not only impossible but also irrelevant. Indeed, democracy in its direct sense (as direct people power) is impossible even purely technically, because there are no mechanisms to provide direct narodopravstvo with any government issue at all levels. Moreover, such narodopravstvo inappropriate and in terms of efficiency of state power, since the absolute majority of people incompetent in dealing with specific cases of government and society. Moreover, the ruling majority, as people in general, under certain conditions may be as a tyrant, as sole despot.
In the western world today many common conception of democracy. All of them one way or the extent take into account the nature of society as a post. Most political analysts based on the fact that the fundamental characteristic of democracy is open decision-making through representative government, that this process at any level is the participation of elected representatives of the people. Democracy, which exist today in the western world, anyway partly based on the principles of classical liberal democracy that emerged in the eighteenth century. Through a long search found a political thought in her form of government that is best designed to combine the freedom, democracy and law.
In an ideal democracy understand that its current standard by which assess various forms of democratic governance. It is the starting point for the "construction" of various concepts (in theory) and different models (in practice) democratic system. Depending on how people imagine themselves to the democratic ideal that the most value and why accentuate the notion of democracy depends on their commitment to certain concepts or certain kinds of democracy.
The main part. The political content of democracy
The concept of democracy has been two and a half thousand years. In different centuries in the history of political thought was given to the term ambiguous interpretation. With the complication of political stratification and pictures on her political doctrines that appeal to democracy, the latter took on various interpretations.
However, there are similarities, that allow to determine the general features that characterize this or that system as democratic, and in particular on quantitative parameters - as more democratic or less democratic.
The classical definition of democracy is inextricably linked to its etymological origin. The term comes from the Greek word, which in turn consists of two words: demos - the people and kratos - the power of government. Born in antiquity, democracy literally means "people power" or "the people" .
In political science the term "democracy" is used in four senses:
how people power;
as a form of structure of any organization based on principles of equality of its members, selectivity and decision making by majority (party-Profsoyuzna, youth, etc.);
as an ideal social order and its associated worldview and value system;
as a movement for democracy (social democratic, Christian democratic, etc.) .
However, over the longer one century in the history of political thought in the concept of "nation" by different authors, academic schools and concepts fit different meaning. The same can be said about the different interpretations of the mechanism of democracyparison of democratic practice to the concepts of democracy shows that the latter, on the one hand, often followed the empirical material, on the other - have sought to develop an ideal model of democratic system which takes into account the experience of the historical development of its negative and positive effects. Therefore, if you deeply analyze the essence of democracy, it would bring under real political system with the real needs of social development.
All this necessitates Typing theoretical models of democracy, which in turn resulted in a real practice of political development. One of the first attempts typification of these models was made by Canadian political scientist S. McPherson. Explorer problem is the English political scientist J. Held, who in his work "model of democracy" singled out different types of democracy: classical, ancient democracy (democracy in ancient Greece, Athenian democracy), republicanism (republicanism in ancient Rome and the medieval city Republic), the protective democracy, democracy, developing the theory of mortality of state (Marx); elitaryzm competitive, pluralistic democracy, democratic theory partitsypatornoyi; legal model of democracy .
If talking is that the historical genesis of democracy a long and controversial. Born in ancient Greece the idea of democracy is not found there ardent supporters among philosophers. Concept of the brightest representatives of the time of Plato and Aristotle were based on the opposition between "right" and "distorted" forms of government and power. Democracy they zarahovuvaly to "distorted" form. In the next century as dominated skeptical of democracy. After the French bourgeois revolution, it became clear that democracy is the way it is more reasonable political and social organization of society, the state government. In the nineteenth century. in a democracy had its ups and downs, but in general, to it was negative. After the publication of the Alexis de Tocqueville's book (1805-1859)"Democracy in America" began to form positive attitudes to democracy. In the early twentieth century. practically no time left political doctrines, including Bolshevism and fascism, which is based in their ideological constructions not be laid for democracy all sorts. After the 1917 revolution in Russia was proclaimed a dictatorship of the proletariat as a higher type of proletarian democracy.
Great significance in strengthening the modern norms of democracy played Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN (1948), Helsinki Meeting (1975), the human rights movement in post-socialist countries, the Paris meeting of the heads of European governments and adopted its "Charter of Paris for a New Europe " (1990) [5, 421].
One of the basic principles of democracy is the principle of majority. Majority rule is the essence of the doctrine of popular sovereignty, under which the people declared source of supreme power in a democratic society. Democracy presupposes free activities of all political parties, socio-political associations, organizations, movements, acting within the law. For democratic government characterized by multi.
An important attribute of democracy - the principle of separation of powers in the system of government. According to this principle of legislative, executive and judiciary are separate and quite independent of one another. However, they constantly interact and counterbalance one another. The indispensable condition of democracy is transparency of all activities of state bodies, political parties and public organizations. The independent status of the media - is also an attribute of a democratic society.
In a democratic society a significant role in the system of government is given to local government, is a rational division of competence and powers of various levels of government. That local government closest to the people and of its action depends on the daily lives of citizens. Therefore, the degree of democratic society is measured by the fact that the status and scope of local authorities, as well as its level of accessibility for people [1, 125].
In our work we are not able to examine in detail all the concepts of democracy. Therefore, we will cover only those concepts that are associated with the theory and practice of modern democracy that goes back to the XVII-XVIII centuries.
Doctrine of liberal and pluralistic democracy
In public consciousness of democracy is equated with democracy. This form of government in terms of the mechanism of expression of popular sovereignty serves as a direct and representative democracy. The first involves the direct expression of associations of individuals - government officials - or those of the life of this association, such as the referendum. Apparatus of power will take the role of organizer and guarantor of the general will. It is determined by people power takes the political decision, specifying and protecting the public will. Representative democracy assumes that the main decisions taken by the authorized representatives of the People's Assembly (parliament, the National Assembly, the Congress) are elected government officials. This representative institutions, their activities are controlled by associations [7, 215].
Different theoretical solution contradictions between the ideal of democracy and its reality is meaning the existence of diverse concepts of democracy. Historically, the first such concept and form of its practical implementation was a classical liberal democracy, which is the most comprehensive measure is based on the principles of democracy (equality, freedom, popular participation in state government, majoritarism, civic consensus, elected government, protection of minorities).
The main idea of liberalism - the idea of individual freedom. According to her liberal democracy to the forefront of putting civil liberties like privacy of an individual's independence from political power. Ensuring civil freedom is based primarily on the implementation of individual rights and freedoms of the individual: the right to life and personal immunity, freedom and resistance to violence, property rights and free economic activity, freedom of private life - the inviolability of home and privacy of correspondence, freedom of movement and choice accommodation and so on. But the presence of individual political rights and freedoms gives him the opportunity to participate in the exercise of state power to influence the state to meet the personal and common interests and needs.
Liberal democracy does not deny the will of the people directly, but prefer representative democracy that allows the most complete way to combine the ideal of democracy and the possibility of its practical implementation. Accordingly, democracy understood as a responsible government, government can make decisions and bear responsibility for them. The main elements of representative democracy, constitutionality and defined limits of political domination. So called liberal democracy still a constitutional democracy in which the will of the people shown do not fully and openly, directly, but delegated to representatives who are in the process of political decision-making that will express themselves and under own responsibility.
The essence of liberal democracy in concentrated form was reflected in the proposed U. S. President Abraham Lincoln's formula: government of the people, by the people, for the people (government of the people, elected by the people and for people).
Characterized by emphasis on individual freedom of liberalism leads to social polarization of society, the aggravation of class struggle, generates political instability, etc. .
Designed to overcome the shortcomings of liberalism concept of a pluralistic democracy (from Lat. Pluralis - plural) as a kind of modern liberal democracy. Such a democracy is based on consideration of all the plurality, diversity of social interests. The main feature is its open nature of decision-making through representative government. Adoption of the authorities or those making under such conditions is the result of interaction and competition among various political forces, especially political parties and diverse interest groups.
The concept of a pluralistic democratic political system of society is considered as a mechanism that balances the interests of class, ethnic, demographic, professional, regional, religious and similar groups and organizations. Each of them affects the policy-making, but none have a monopoly. There dribnennya political power between state and public institutions. Various social interests, the interests of workers zokremai so closely considered. If it is any social group believes that what politics does not correspond to its interests, it has the ability to pursue an open discussion of relevant issues and take the necessary political decisions.
concept democracy political proletarian
The concept of a pluralist democracy was the most powerful in the 60's - early 70's of XX century. At first glance, pluralistic democracy - a democracy for all. However, it is not devoid of some drawbacks. One of them is that for the interests and needs of certain social groups such as youth, women or the poorest, a real equal opportunities for their participation in the exercise of state power to these groups to provide certain benefits and privileges. But fixing any privileges and benefits for these or those social groups contradicts one of the basic principles of democracy - equality of all citizens before the law. Expansion of actual equality jeopardizes a fundamental principle of democracy as freedom.
In addition, the concept of pluralistic democracy absolyutyzuye opportunities for political representation of social interests through political parties and organizations as diverse interest groups. Ordinary members of parties and NGOs really play a secondary role in them, and the main decisions adopted by their leaders, and not always for the same rank and file members.
Finally, the facility itself is unreal conception of pluralist democracy that the whole population will be represented in the parties and interest groups, these associations are equal in their political influence. The greatest influence on policy in countries with developed market economies have a variety of business entities, especially national, sectoral and cross-industry associations. They have tremendous material and financial resources to influence the authorities. Appreciable influence on politics and trade unions have, which are the most massive organizations of employees.
One of the attempts to get out of the contradictions of the theory of pluralist democracy is the theory formulated by R. Dahl polyarchy - a multiplicity of power centers, and hence the elite groups in a democratic society. This implies that instead of a single center of sovereign power should be plurality of such centers, none of which can not be fully sovereign. Democratic is a system where the government dispersed power in contrast to the few - the dictatorship.
R. Dahl believes that the term "democracy" is suitable only for the characteristics of an ideal society. Valid state system that approaches the ideal state - a polyarchy. Of course, such a system is not without faults compared with democracy. But it
Key Features of a Liberal Democratic State
The whole innovation of "Democracy" was derived as far back as five
hundred B.C in Athens. The term came from the Greek language, "demos"
meaning people and "cracy" meaning power. It was created because of
the failing current system being an aristocracy due to trading, new
battle tactics and because people were starting to want to have there
own say rather than let a noble claim it. With only fifty thousand
people with citizenship it was more practical just to have a public
assembly where everyone had the right to speak and no decision could
be taken which did not meet with the approval of an majority.
Sadly this government did not last because of the decline in the Greek
civilisation. From then on Democracy was seen as an ideal that was not
practical because of an uneducated majority of people living in each
country. Theses particular times such as the middle ages were where
Monarchy flourished. However changes were starting to develop with the
ever increasing industrialisation revolution and a representative
democracy was taking favour.
With the new state of government came new changes in legislation such
as working class activity was given to other friendly societies, there
was gradual social and economic reform as in factory and public health
legislation. The U.K population were given increased political
participation whereby the government introduced new Acts from eighteen
thirty two right up to nineteen sixty nine where slowly everyone over
the age of eighteen could vote. And finally the extension of education
to the working classes which before then was unheard of.
. middle of paper.
Although the Democracy sounds good on paper it is not a perfect way to
run a state and does have flaws which in the past equated to major
problems as in N.Ireland. Democracy has inherent contradictions such
as the liberty of the individual and equality of the majority and also
government by the majority versus minority rights. The latter applies
to Northern Ireland where one third of the population was catholic and
wished to be part of the Republic of Ireland and two thirds of the
pop. was protestant and wanted to stay as the U.K. This ironic
minority was not happy with the decisions of the majority being
protestant and as a result formed the IRA.
In conclusion a Democratic government despite its deficiencies remains
to be the best way of running a country without the threat of
arbitrary ruling and tyranny.
Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paperClick the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper
Practicing Decentered Radical Democratic Citizenship in a Decentered State - What is a citizen and where does she practice her citizenship. These questions cannot be answered unless accompanied by sufficient knowledge of how different types of citizenships are formed and how these citizenships are practiced. There is not one singular type of citizen that permeates the world or even the United States—an intermingled and enmeshed notion of citizenship is acted out through a combination of rights and duties as the citizen attempts to hold onto those values that are most important to them. [tags: Sociology ]
. 2 Works Cited
Essay on Is the EU Democratic? - The European Union (EU) is fundamentally democratic and is evident through its institutions, however, the current democratic electoral structure is of great concern. The EU is a new type of political system, often referred to as a sui generis, implying its uniqueness as there exists and a non comparable political body. The EU can neither regarded as a ‘state’ nor as an ‘international institution’ as it combines supranational as well as intergovernmental characteristics (Hix, 1999, p7). In this regard it has developed its own understandings of what democracy is. [tags: Politics, Europe]
. 15 Works Cited
Essay on Democratic Policing Literature Review - Introduction The theory of democratic policing is no monolithic, cogent and cohesive doctrine. Rather like democracy itself, the literature on democratic policing is characterised by oft-competing claims and counter-claims as to its core principles, goals and arrangements. This literature review canvasses the notable differences and similarities in the various characterisations of democratic policing, and also briefly looks at the challenges that some authors argue are already threatening the dominance of the theory. [tags: Political Science]
. 18 Works Cited
SADC: A Private Club or A Democratic Institution? Essay - An understanding of the philosophical, political and economic and historical background is essential to the comprehension of the functions of institutions in SADC. According to Zacarias A. (1998), he stated SADC is virtually the transformation of the so-called war-time frontline states and newly independent state of Southern Africa from a purely defensive military alliance, against apartheid and settler colonial minority regimes, into an economic and political alliance. The founding fathers of SADC most notably Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Mujoma of Namibia’s tendency to treat SADC as an exclusive private club to the used to satisfy their whims is clearly illustrative of the fact that these leader. [tags: Economics]
. 8 Works Cited
Essay about Representation, Transparency, Inclusion and Responsibility - Question 1: What features of consultation instruments make them likely to carry stakeholder legitimacy. The consultation regime in a democratic state should reflect the traditional democratic values - representation, transparency, inclusion and responsibility (Kohler-Koch and Quittkat 2013). Since consultation instruments are developed by the state for the public, it is then crucial to ensure they are available and accessible to a variety of stakeholders, interested public, organisations and experts. [tags: Democratic Values]
. 14 Works Cited
Essay about The State as One Actor Amongst Many - The sovereign nature of states is a topic that has come into question towards the end of the last century. Many advancements and changes, both within and outside borders, have brought into some doubt whether the state is indeed as strong an actor within its borders as it once was. By analysing internal and external influences on the governments of the UK and USA in the twentieth century, it is possible to judge how the nature of power has changed. I will argue that a gradual progression of events, in particular marketisation of the economy and growing dependence on supranational bodies such as the EU and the international economy, have clearly reduced the state to an actor that still retains. [tags: Globalization, International Politics]
. 11 Works Cited
The Main Features of the Soviet Constitution of Ninteteen-Thirty Six Essay - The Main Features of the Soviet Constitution of Ninteteen-Thirty Six In 1936, Stalin judged the time ripe for drafting a new constitution which would preserve his autocratic power in the country. It was adopted by popular vote the following year and went into effect on January 1st 1938. Main features of the Constitution ================================= According to the Constitution, Communist Russia called itself the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. There were 11 republics, representing the different racial groups and possessing limited powers over their own affairs. [tags: Papers]
Public Relations and Democratic Communication Essays - Consider the arguments for and against the view that Public Relations enhance democratic communication. While democratic communication influenced by many different factors, especially in capitalist society, the elites represents as dominant groups that have more opportunities to express their voice. Among to the rest, Public Relations play an important role in the communication between public and different organizations. The core of this essay is based on the debate of whether Public Relations enhance democratic communication. [tags: Democratic Communications]
. 10 Works Cited
Essay on The Key Features of the Weimar Constitution - The Key Features of the Weimar Constitution The Weimar constitution worked better than the second Reich, which reformed in 1918. The constitution was present for a number of years in Germany, which reflected the effectiveness of the system. It was under a far more democratic regime due to the change in the political structure hence involving more elections due to the voting system that was in power. Firstly, the main key feature of the Weimar Republic was its new electoral system. [tags: Papers]
The Key Features of the Watergate Scandal Essay - The Key Features of the Watergate Scandal On the 17th of June 1972 five men were arrested for trying to break into and bug the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate building in Washington. When investigating this break in, the police discovered that the five men were all employed by CREEP. CREEP was a committee established by the Republican Party to campaign for the re-election of President Nixon. They were prepared to go to any lengths to achieve their objectives, even if it meant breaking the law. [tags: Papers]
Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
The state is a formal group that is sovereign over its members and occupies a well-defined territory (Rummel, n.d.).People as members of certain state are significantly depended on numerous factors, which establish clear rules (norms) of behavior, operation, interaction between state and individuals etc. Largely, they are determined by state's political organization. Political organization, as the symbiosis of fundamental principles, can be defined in next way - the set of formal legal institutions that constitute a "government" or a "state." (Heslop, n.d.).The broad meaning of this legal and political institution is manifested throughout its primary nature for legislation and power authorities' organization. In fact, the world experiences several political systems. However, there is special look at liberal democracy, which became traditional for Western world. It worth being mentioning that scholars give different classifications of political organizations due to basic features of provided analysis. Being motivated to get study of liberal democracy as the best type of political system, the general classification to democracy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism will be followed in this essay (Flat world knowledge 2006). In addition, it is considered that democracy is also classified into different types. It is stated that liberal democracy is the best type of political organization. To prove this fact, its fundamental analysis and comparison with other political systems will be provided.
To begin with, let's get clear with main characteristics of liberal democracy as independent type of political organization. Speaking Frankly, sources give us different definitions. For example, "US legal definitions" claims that liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy with free and fair form of elections procedure and competitive political process (US legal 2008). On the other hand, "MSN dictionary" states that modern Western political system: a political system that has free elections, a multiplicity of political parties, political decisions made through an independent legislature, and an independent judiciary, with a state monopoly on law enforcement (MSN 2009). There are some other varieties, but no need put them due to similar meanings. Every definition is based on certain specifics and features. Thus, the primary task is appropriate outline making. First of all, four grounding principles of this political organization type worth to be noted. Briefly, they can be determined in next way - belief in both rational and moral individual; belief in natural progress of humankind; consensual theory of society - co-operation and order are the primary basics; concentrated power suspicion (Modern political ideas, n.d.). Due to previous statement, liberal democracy is the kind of democratic and liberal values combination. As the result, this political system featured by next specifics: constitutional protections of individual rights; free and fair elections; an independent judiciary; active civil society; ensured rule of majority; respect to minority freedoms and rights; free press; pluralistic parties and institutions; transparent legislatures; market economy (Liberal Democracy: Accountability, Political Rights and Duties 2010). So, these are the key features, which recognized to be legally, politically and socially protected values in every Liberally-democratic state. Talking about Liberal-democracy as the best type of political organization, it should be reminded that its appearance became the result of Revolutions of oppressed. This type of political organization takes its roots from Great French Revolution, which became the start point of modern human's freedoms and rights establishment. In this order, Liberal-democracy can be associated to eventual product of society's evolution, which is adopted in all civilized countries today. The history teaches that humankind is featured by constant progress, it always moves from worse to better. At this moment, liberal-democracy is the top idea about state's organization and human's rights, but what about other kinds of political organizations?
It was stated before, that this work keeps next classification of political systems: democracy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism. To support the claim that liberal-democracy is the best type political organization, brief analysis of contrary different political systems has to provided.
Totalitarianism. To take the general view on this type, the definition given by Gilbert Pleuger is the most suitable: "Totalitarianism is 'a system of rule, driven by an ideology, that seeks direction of all aspects of public activity, political, economic and social, and uses to that end, at least to a degree, propaganda and terror" (Pleuger, n.d.). According to this comprehensive and reasonable thought, this type of political organization has next key characteristics: forcing to official ideology keep; hierarchically organized single party; monopoly on MMC (means of mass communication); oligopolistic control under armed forces; large repressive aparatus; centralized and directed control on economy system (Totalitarianism 2005). Italy (1922-43/45), Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and North Korea are perfect examples of Totalitarianism (Buzzle.com 2009). In this respect, appropriate type of political organization deprives such democratic and liberal values, as pluralism, checks and balances system, civilized society. In addition plenty of human's rights and freedoms are significantly restricted or absent at all. In this respect, there is plenty of supports to claim that this type of political organization cannot be competitive to liberal-democracy.
Authoritarianism. According to widely adopted formulation, this type of political organization is characterized by favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom (Web Bing 2009). As for examples of Authoritarianism, China, Burma, Zimbabwe and the list of other Latin American and East Asian countries can be noted (Light of peace 2011). In fact, this system derivative to totalitarianism. However, it is not so strong with some disastrous inherent features. Drawing analogues between Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism, the last is different with absence of mandatory and compulsory ideology; little tolerance to pluralism in social organizations; power exercising within relatively predictable limits; restricted, but permitted social political participation. Speaking Frankly, authoritarianism is "the light version" of totalitarianism. Authoritarianism is intolerant to such democratic values as free and fair elections, full pluralism, freedom of press, control of power authorities, civilized society, integrity of human's rights and freedoms etc. In this order, liberal-democracy is still much more beneficial in comparison to Authoritarianism, as last one is the perfect environment restrictive manifestations and power monopolization.
Being clear that democratic and liberal values won the race with Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism, it is just time to go to direct analysis of other democratic political systems. In fact, there are still variety of possible classifications. For example, it can be Direct Democracy, Presidential Democracy and Parliamentary democracy (Democracy building 2004). However, aiming for Liber-democracy evaluation, it reasonable to take other classification presented by Sammy Smooha: liberal democracy, ethnic democracy and consociational democracy (Smooha 2002). Being consistent, it has to be said that ethnic democracy is the kind political system that combined of both democratic values and ethnic ascendancy. This political organization is often called second-rate democracy. Ethnic democracy is inherent for former Soviet Union countries, where democratic and liberal values are declared, but not followed at all. In this order, the lack of control under states' authorities and consequent human's freedoms violations are inherent for this political system. From this point of view, argument that ethnic can be competitive to liberal democracy is not supported. On the other hand, consociational democracy is the type of political organization grounded on the groups difference recognition and collective rights extension. This political system can be found in Switzerland, Belgium and Canada. It worth being mentioned that consociational democracy can hardly be evaluated as decent alternative to liberal one. Speaking Frankly, it can be recognized as the intention to liberal-democracy establishment inside potentially conflict state. This claim is supported by George Wills: "Consociationalism is used empirically to explain stable democracy in deeply divided societies, and normatively to prescribe a solution to societies where democracy is at risk because of social segmentation" (Info 2007). In this order, consociational democracy is the kind of solution to protect democratic values. It is still focused on general principles of state's authorities operating, free and fair elections providing, inherent human's rights and freedoms keeping. So, there it is reasonably argued that consociational democracy is more the kind of reaction to conflict manifestations than independent, contrary different to liberal democracy type of political organization.
To conclude, the simple evaluation, comparison and analysis encourage us to make the conclusion that Liberal-democracy is the best type of political system (organization). No other regime is competitive to it, in respect to mandatory protection of freedoms and rights. It ought to be noticed that the concept of Liberal-democracy is the greatest product of humankind's philosophical and legal thought. The principles founded by thinkers of Enlightenment era were approved for wide implementation today. However, there is one curious question - is it the top of evolution and progress? Seemingly, yes.
Essay Writing Service
Fully referenced, delivered on time, Essay Writing Service.