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Paper 2: Process Analysis Writing Process analysis is a type. examples of process analysis. Is it directional or informational? 2) Should the essay using. Examples; Examples of Informative Essays; Examples of Informative Essays. 7th grade 8th grade 9th grade Middle School High School College. Related Articles. Process analysis essays include a clear thesis statement. Write an Informational Process Analysis essay explaining. (of your choice) works. For example, how a. How to Catch River Crabs 2. A Process Analysis Essay ( Robert Nickelsberg/Getty Images). Examples and Guidelines; What is a process essay. Here is a process analysis essay sample. Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example; Analysis Essay Format; Process analysis is a method of paragraph or essay development by which a writer. a process essay requires a thesis to tell the reader. Example: How. The Informative Essay 1. analysis, and interpretation. The Process Essay. by one of my students and is a good example of how to organize an informational process essay. Process Analysis: Sample Essay. ENG101. Mrs. For example, if. results for Examples Of An Informational Process Essay Search. How to Do an Oil Change (Process Essay Example). Process Analysis Example. Process Analysis A. Process Analysis Technique. you give commands directly to your reader in a directive type of process analysis. Example. Process Analysis Essay.
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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The primary purpose of this lecture is to introduce the student to basic business concepts. Information systems support the operations and management of businesses and other organizations. To understand why information systems are used in business, the student must look at the benefits that information systems can offer to their users.Purpose of a Business The purpose of a business is to earn a profit, or make money for its owners. The business accomplishes this by providing goods and services to its customers at a price that meets or exceeds the expenses of the business. The money received from the customer is the business's revenue. The difference between the revenue and expenses paid for bills is called the net income. If the net income is greater than the expenses, the business makes a profit for the owners of the business. In non-profit or not-for-profit organizations, any revenue earned above expenses is used to improve the organization.
Businesses operate in an environment that includes economic, legal, cultural, and competitive factors. Economic factors affect businesses by influencing how much money consumers have to spend on goods and services. Laws and regulations set up by government have an impact how a business may operate. Competitors affect businesses by forcing them to continually innovate and improve their business practices.Types of Businesses There are many types of businesses. The general categories used in this course are manufacturers, wholesalers or distributors, retailers, service businesses, and non-profit organizations. A manufacturer produces goods that are sold to other businesses or to individual customers. Goods produced by a manufacturer may be sold to wholesalers or distributors. The wholesaler purchases large quantities of the goods and stores them in warehouses. The retailer purchases quantities of goods from wholesalers or directly from manufacturers. Consumers then purchase the goods from a store or other retail location operated by the retailer. Service businesses are not directly involved in manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing products, but instead provide services needed by other businesses or individual customers. For example, the service business might provide maintenance for retail stores, or lawn mowing services for an individual customer. Why Should Business Use Information Systems
Computer information systems are everywhere, and society as a whole relies on them for almost everything. Think about how slow service at your local bank would be if they had to look up your bank balance in a paper ledger every time you went to the bank. Think about how much more efficient telephone services are, now that we have computers controlling the telephone systems. There are however some disadvantages, such as the depersonalization of service. Some people go to banks and do not like to use the automatic teller machines because they would rather interact with a person. Other people strongly dislike voicemail systems, because they feel that they are only a number instead of a real person that is served by a business.The Benefits
Better Information for Decision MakingInformation systems store and process data but more importantly they produce information which is the basis for good decision making.
Improved Services for Customers
Computer information systems operate at any time of the day and process faster than humans. They bring along convenience and efficiency to customers who use the services of the systems.
Productivity has to do with how much people can accomplish in a given time. With computer information systems, people can do more productive work in a period of time than they would be able to do if they did not have such systems.
Lowering the Cost of Products and Services
The increase in productivity can help reduce the cost of production and services. These cost savings may be passed on to the customers in terms of lower prices. Profits of the business may also enjoy an increase as a result.
Achieving Strategic Competitive Advantages
A business can achieve strategic competitive advantages as it offers pioneering services ahead of its competitors. Ability to provide unique products and services at unbeaten prices also forms a strong binding between the business and its customers and business partners.Types of Information Systems
People working for businesses get the information they need through the use of information systems. Put simply, an information system provides information to help people operate and manage a business. This lecture surveys some of the types of information systems, and gives examples of each type. It discusses the benefits of the information systems to people and organizations.Types of Information Systems Individual software tools - affects a single person
Individual or personal software tools usually exist on personal computers, and are used by one person at a time. Examples include word processing software such as Microsoft Word, spreadsheet software such as Lotus 1-2-3, and graphics or presentation software, such as Microsoft's PowerPoint.Workgroup information systems - affects a group of individuals who work together
In business, people often work in teams. These teams or workgroups can have meetings, talk on the telephone, send faxes, and distribute memos. Workgroups can solve problems and make collective decisions together which improves the business. However, meetings can be very difficult to arrange, especially when individuals work at distant locations. In addition, meetings can be very expensive and time-consuming when people must travel significant distances to get together. All of these situations make group collaboration difficult. Workgroup software provides an integrated solution for many of the problems associated with working in groups.
Work-group or group information systems often operate on personal computer that act as servers, and serve several users at a time. Work group information systems can include e-mail or electronic mail, and information sharing systems otherwise known as groupware. One very popular example of groupware is Lotus Notes. This software allows many users to share information by providing access to all the functions of an information system. This information is stored in a database. Lotus Notes allows users to place data or information in a database and then have other users review, change, edit, and comment on it.Organizational information systems - closely related to the running of the business of an organization Transaction Processing Systems
The main information systems used for operational support in a business are transaction processing systems. This type of system processes data about transactions, which are events that have occurred that affect the business, such as the sale or purchase of goods. For example, a grocery store checkout system processes data about transactions that affects a store's inventory. When you buy groceries, the purchase of items is a transaction.
A transaction processing system has 3 main purposes: keep records about the state of an organization, process transactions that affect these records, and produce outputs that report on transactions that have occurred. For example, an inventory control system tracks records about inventory, processes sales and purchases of inventory, and produces reports about the amount and value of items on hand, on order, etc.
Transaction processing systems exist in all areas of an organization, and in all types of organizations. TPSs can be used by employees (order entry) or customers (bank ATMs). They can use various types of hardware, software, and networks. TPSs use stored data in both files and databases, and many types of programs.Management Information Systems
In addition to supporting business operation, information systems also support the management. Management involves making decisions and some information systems support management decision making. Information systems that support management decision making can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of business operations. A decision is a choice between 2 actions. Decisions involve uncertainty, because decision makers don't know the outcome of their decisions ahead of time. Information can reduce uncertainty, and the more information available to the decision maker, the better the decision is likely to be. Information systems improve decision making by supplying information to decision makers. These systems take raw data, analyze it according to the desires of the user, and present it in informative ways.
Information systems support management in all business functions and at all levels. Accounting information systems provide accounting information for decision making at operational, tactical, and strategic levels. Marketing, finance, manufacturing, and other information systems also provide relevant information at various levels of the organization.
The users of management information system are managers at each of the three levels of decision making. Users request information from the system and information is returned in the form of reports and query responses. The MIS database contains data that is processed to provide information to manager. The MIS software consists of application software to manipulate the data in the database. The software accepts requests, accesses data, processes the data, and produces output. The software also updates the database as needed.
Data in the database comes from both inside and outside the organization. Some internal data may be entered by managers, but most comes directly from the stored data of transaction processing systems. Data from outside the organization comes from many sources. Periodicals, government publications, and research company reports often contain useful data. The data can be accessed by personal computers with the use of data communications, or purchased in the form of databases on tape or disk or CD.Decision Support Systems
A decision support system or DSS helps managers make decisions by analyzing data from the database and providing the results of the analysis to the manager. A DSS is usually best for decisions at the middle and top levels of management. A DSS helps with making decisions but does not actually make decisions; only managers make decisions.
A DSS includes several ways of analyzing data. The manager can select the form of analysis they want, the system performs the calculations required for the analysis, and displays or prints the results. Statistical calculations involve manipulating data to determine the characteristics of the data or to draw conclusions from the data. An example of statistical calculation is finding the average sales of an item. Another form of analysis is mathematical modeling. A model is a representation of reality. A model can be used to help predict what will happen with different decisions. The model stimulates, using mathematical equations, the real world. By trying different strategies a manager can use the model to determine the best decision.Executive Support Systems
Top-level managers have special information needs. Although information systems and decision support systems used by other managers can meet some of those needs, these systems are not commonly used by executives. An executive support system or ESS is designed specifically for high-level managers. This type of system, also called an executive information system or EIS, is most useful for executives.
Managers at the strategic level generally need summarized information. Sometimes, however, a manager needs to focus on the details of a particular aspect of information. To answer questions that involve looking at the details below a summary, the manager uses a process called drilling down. A manager can start with sales by region, break that down to sales by office, and then get the details by product line. Once the problem has been identified, the manager can concentrate their effort on correcting the problem.Interorganisational information systems - function among several organizations
Interorganizational information systems connect groups of computers located in different organizations, and connected through an interorganizational network. One example of an interorganizational information system is electronic data interchange or EDI. EDI allows businesses to exchange data electronically, such as purchase information and invoices or bills for products or services.
Banks and other financial institutions use an interorganizational information system known as electronic funds transfer or EFT. EFT allows funds to be electronically transferred between financial institutions. For example, when you withdraw cash from an ATM associated with a bank other than your own, your bank will use EFT to transfer money from your account to the bank issuing the cash to reimburse the bank that gave you the money.
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In terms of information theory the author’s style may be named the stylistics of encode – the language being viewed as the code to shape the information into the message and the supplier of information respectively, the author is the encoder (addresser). The audience in this case plays the part of the decoder of the information contained in the message and the problem connected with the adequate reception of the message without any information loses and deformation that is with adequate decoding other concern of decoding stylistics.
Information. in terms of philosophy, is the inner content of the process of reflection which results in changing the characteristics of some objects due to the influence of other objects they interact with.
Denotative information - is the contential nucleus of a language unit which 1) names the subject-matter of communication; 2) is not predetermined by the communication act; 3) directly or indirectly refers to the object or notion of reality.
Connotative information is the contential periphery of a language unit which: 1) depends upon different aspects of communication act (time, participants, etc). 2) expresses the speaker's attitude to the subject-matter of communication, to the listener os to the social status of the interlocutors.
Message is the information which the speaker intends to transmit to (or, rather, to provoke in) the listener. Signal is the information materialized verbally (e.g. in a sound form) or non-verbally (e.g. dance, a piece of music etc.), as a text etc.
Communication channel is constituted by the physical, situational, cultural, social, economic, or political environment in which the signal is transmitted.4. The principal model of information transfer. Its constituents.
literary: the author - the reader
encoding device - coding systems (verbal, non-verbal) - mind - organ of speech (if it is oral speech).
decoding device - message - block of memory of the receiver - the receiver
1) code inedequacy (other language, unknown word);
2) change of code (changed meaning);
3) cultural changes;
4) physical factors (noise, defects of speech).5. The principal model of information transfer. Basic processes involved. Information loss and accumulation.
The notions of encoding and decoding
Decoding stylistics is the most recent trend in stylistic research that employs theoretical findings in such areas of science as information theory, psychology, statistical studies in combination with linguistics, literary theory, history of art, literary criticism, etc.
Decoding stylistics makes an attempt to regard the esthetic value of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements, stylistic devices and compositional structure in delivering the author’s message. This method does not consider the stylistic function of any stylistically important feature separately but only as a part of the whole text. So expressive means and stylistic devices are treated in their interaction and distribution within the text as carriers of the author’s purport and creative idiom.
Decoding stylistics helps the reader in his or her understanding of a literary work by explaining or decoding the information that may be hidden from immediate view in specific allusions, cultural or political parallels, peculiar use of irony or euphemy, etc.
In a rather simplified version this theory presents a creative process in the following mode. The writer receives diverse information from the outside world. Some of it becomes a source for his creative work. He processes this information and recreates it in his own esthetic images that become a vehicle to pass his vision to the addressee, his readers. The process of internalizing of the outside information and translating it into his imagery is called ‘encoding’. The reader is supposed to decode the information contained in the text of a literary work.
However to encode the information does not mean to have it delivered or passed intact to the recipient. There are more obstacles here than meet the eye. In contrast to the writer who is always concrete the reader who is addressed is in fact an abstract notion, he is any of the thousands of people who may read this book. This abstract reader may not be prepared or willing to decode the message or even take it. The reasons are numerous and various.
From the reader’s point of view the important thing is not what the author wanted to say but what he managed to convey in the text of his work.
That’s why decoding stylistics deals with the notions of stylistics of the author and stylistics of the reader.
Euromed Marseille School of Management, World Med MBA Program - Information Systems and Strategy Course
You are here: Information Systems and Strategy, Session 1, Types of Information System and the Classic Pyramid ModelWhy are there different types of Information System?
In the early days of computing, each time an information system was needed it was 'tailor made' - built as a one-off solution for a particular problem. However, it soon became apparent that many of the problems information systems set out to solve shared certain characteristics. Consequently, people attempted to try to build a single system that would solve a whole range of similar problems. However, they soon realized that in order to do this, it was first necessary to be able to define how and where the information system would be used and why it was needed. It was then that the search for a way to classify information systems accurately began.How do you identify the different types of information system in an organization?
The different types of information system that can be found are identified through a process of classification. Classification is simply a method by which things can be categorized or classified together so that they can be treated as if they were a single unit. There is a long history of classification of things in the natural world such as plants or animals, however, Information systems are not part of the 'natural' world; they are created and acquired by man to deal with particular tasks and problems. The classification of information systems into different types is a useful technique for designing systems and discussing their application; it not however a fixed definition governed by some natural law. A 'type' or category of information system is simply a concept, an abstraction, which has been created as a way to simplify a complex problem through identifying areas of commonality between different things. One of the oldest and most widely used systems for classifying information systems is known as the pyramid model; this is described in more detail below.How many different kinds of Information System are there?
As can be seen above, there is not a simple answer to this. Depending on how you create your classification, you can find almost any number of different types of information system. However, it is important to remember that different kinds of systems found in organizations exist to deal with the particular problems and tasks that are found in organizations. Consequently, most attempts to classify Information systems into different types rely on the way in which task and responsibilities are divided within an organization. As most organizations are hierarchical, the way in which the different classes of information systems are categorized tends to follow the hierarchy. This is often described as "the pyramid model" because the way in which the systems are arranged mirrors the nature of the tasks found at various different levels in the organization.
For example, this is a three level pyramid model based on the type of decisions taken at different levels in the organization.
Three level pyramid model based on the type of decisions taken at different levels in the organization
Similarly, by changing our criteria to the differnt types of date / information / knowledge that are processed at different levels in the organization, we can create a five level model.
Five level pyramid model based on the processing requirement of different levels in the organizationWhat are the most common types of information system in an organization?
While there are several different versions of the pyramid model, the most common is probably a four level model based on the people who use the systems. Basing the classification on the people who use the information system means that many of the other characteristics such as the nature of the task and informational requirements, are taken into account more or less automatically.
Four level pyramid model based on the different levels of hierarchy in the organizationA comparison of different kinds of Information Systems
Using the four level pyramid model above, we can now compare how the information systems in our model differ from each other.Transaction Processing Systems What is a Transaction Processing System?
Transaction Processing System are operational-level systems at the bottom of the pyramid. They are usually operated directly by shop floor workers or front line staff, which provide the key data required to support the management of operations. This data is usually obtained through the automated or semi-automated tracking of low-level activities and basic transactions.Functions of a TPS
TPS are ultimately little more than simple data processing systems.
Functions of a TPS in terms of data processing requirements