Category: Critical thinking
2 A Bit About Me B.A. History -Truman State University (Kirksville, Missouri) M.A.E. (Master of Arts in Education - emphasis on Secondary Social Studies Education) - Truman State University 6 years teaching United States and World History at Fort Zumwalt West High School in O’Fallon, Missouri Currently teaching English Academic Writing and Speaking at Nanjing University Currently teaching Advanced Placement (AP) United States History at Linkfun International Education Avid swimmer, runner, and swim coach
3 Pop Quiz! Which of the following questions requires the least amount of critical thinking to answer? A. Explain the difference between a rectangle and a pentagon. B. What is a triangle? C. Find the area of the triangle. D. Why is geometry more difficult than algebra?
4 Pop Quiz! Which of the following questions requires the most amount of critical thinking to answer? A. Explain the difference between a rectangle and a pentagon. B. What is a triangle? C. Find the area of the triangle. D. Why is geometry more difficult than algebra?
5 What is ‘Critical Thinking’? Many different definitions with similar meanings “Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to new or unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations.” "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates, Greek philosopher
6 Confucius and Critical Thinking? "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous"
7 Why is Critical Thinking Important? American educators at all levels (elementary, secondary, and post- secondary) are encouraged to promote and include critical thinking in their curriculum and instruction Fosters innovation and problem solving skills Promotes ‘outside the box’ thinking Promotes higher rates of knowledge retention
8 Bloom’s Taxonomy Background - “Benjamin Bloom was an educational psychologist working in the late 1950s that categorized levels of intellectual behavior vital to learning”
9 Bloom’s New Taxonomy The resulting ‘taxonomy’ or classification system has been modified slightly to meet the newer demands 21st century
10 Remembering Can the student recall or remember the information? What is the capital of China? Define the term archaic. Who was the first president of the United States? List five facts about the Tang Dynasty.
11 Remembering This level requires the least amount of critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the REMEMBERING level include asking students to: define, list, memorize, recall, restate, repeat
12 Understanding Can the student explain ideas or concepts? Describe the process of photosynthesis. Summarize the plot of the novel. Discuss the principles of macroeconomics.
13 Understanding This level requires slightly more critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the UNDERSTANDING level include asking students to: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
14 Applying Can the student use the information in a new way? Demonstrate how a 21st century version of Romeo and Juliet would be. Draw the water cycle. What questions would you ask Martin Luther King, Jr. if you met him?
15 Applying This level requires substantially more critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the APPLYING level include asking students to: choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write
16 Analyzing Can the student distinguish between the different parts? Contrast Thomas Hobbes’ and John Locke’s views on human nature. What motivated the British colonists in America to rebel against Great Britain? To what extent is candidate A similar or different from candidate B.
17 Analyzing This level requires significantly more critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the ANALYZING level include asking students to: appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test
18 Evaluating Can the student justify a position or decision? Is there a better solution to global warming than solar power? Do you think gun control is a good or bad thing? Why are baozi superior to jiaozi?
19 Evaluating This level requires much critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the EVALUATING level include asking students to: appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
20 Creating Can the student create a new product or point of view? Debate which is better: an iPhone or an Android? Design a business model for a new company.
21 Creating This level requires the most critical thinking from a student. Characteristics of questions or assessments at the CREATING level include asking students to: assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write, debate
22 H.O.T.S. The last three levels of Bloom’s taxonomy (Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating) are where the most critical thinking (or higher order thinking skills H.O.T.S) is required and enhanced The first three levels are important, but do not require much, if any, critical thinking Teachers in all disciplines should create learning environments and lesson plans that aim to reach these top levels
23 How to Teach Critical Thinking? Incorporate Bloom’s taxonomy into your teaching! Use question stems Use critical thinking VERBS Use more of the higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy in your assessments and lesson objectives
26 Let’s APPLY your learning. Using your own discipline/specialty - think of one way to ask a question at each level of Bloom’s taxonomy
33 Sources Used and Useful Resources http://ww2.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms _taxonomy.htm http://ww2.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms _taxonomy.htm http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-critical- thinking.htm http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-critical- thinking.htm http://www.procon.org/view.resource.php?resour ceID=001926 http://www.procon.org/view.resource.php?resour ceID=001926 http://www.colorado.edu/sei/documents/Worksho ps/Handouts/Blooms_Taxonomy.pdf http://www.colorado.edu/sei/documents/Worksho ps/Handouts/Blooms_Taxonomy.pdf http://www.taasa.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/04/Working-on-the-Wow- Side-Handout-31.pdf http://www.taasa.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/04/Working-on-the-Wow- Side-Handout-31.pdf
By Melissa Kelly. Secondary Education Expert
Updated February 21, 2017.
Benjamin Bloom devised a way to categorize reasoning skills based on the amount of critical thinking and reasoning involved. With Bloom's Taxonomy, there are six levels of skills ranked in order from the most basic to the most complex. As teachers, we should ensure that questions we ask both in class and on written assignments and tests are pulled from all levels of the taxonomy pyramid. Unfortunately, many tests tend to focus only on the two lowest levels: Knowledge and Comprehension. The following list was created as an aid for teachers as they create questions for their lessons. It provides question stems and gives examples from across the curriculum for each level.
Andrea Hernandez/Flickr/CC BY-SA 2.0
The Knowledge level forms the base of the Bloom's Taxonomy pyramid. Because it is of the lowest complexity, many of the verbs are themselves question stems as can be seen with the list below. Teachers can use these level of questions to ensure that specific information was learned by the student from the lesson.
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At the Comprehension level, we want students to show that they can go beyond basic recall by understanding what those facts mean. Example question:
At the Application level, students must show that they can apply the information that they have learned. Ways that they can do this include solving problems and creating projects.
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The fourth level of Bloom's Taxonomy is Analysis. Here students find patterns in what they learn. They move beyond simply understanding and applying knowledge. Instead, they begin to have a more active role in their own learning. Example question: Illustrate the difference between a moth and a butterfly.
At the synthesis level, students move beyond relying on previously learned information or analyzing items that the teacher is giving to them. Instead, they move beyond what they have learned to create new products, ideas, and theories.
Evaluation means that students make judgments based on the information they have learned and their own insights. This is often the hardest question to create, especially for an end-of-the-unit exam. Example question: Evaluate the accuracy of the Disney movie Pocahontas .
Fostering critical thinking skills is always a challenge in teaching. Educators still honor Bloom’s Taxonomy as the basis of learning. With that giving way to its revised and updated interpretations, we now have critical thinking tools that can help in all of the key components of developing such skills.
In a nutshell, learning encompasses a series of specific tasks, sometimes in order, but most often not.
The elements are there and online tech tools can help today’s digital students to navigate through the elements collaboratively. In Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy. Andrew Churches outlines critical thinking skills through the lens of Digital Natives. The levels of this taxonomy are:
The challenge is to go from traditional uses of the taxonomy to best digital practices—that is, as a Global Digital Learner. We’ll list the components of Digital Taxonomy and then look at critical thinking tools for students of the digital age to develop their skills with.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Remember
Remembering is:Recognizing, Listing, Describing, Identifying, Retrieving, Naming, Locating/Finding
In the tech world, this looks like:Bullet-Pointing, Highlighting, Bookmarking,Social Networking,Social Bookmarking, Favouriting/Local Bookmarking, Searching, Googling
Tools to Try: YouTube and other “flipped learning” video sites that allow teachers to create and post their lectures online are great ways to reach learners when they’re most comfortable, and when they have time. With Remembering skills being practiced before class, your meeting time with students is reserved for higher-order thinking skills. Here’s more on flipped learning from Jon Bergmann .
Any tool that can help you create great flipped lectures belongs in this list. There’s PowToon. EdTED. and Clarisketch as other great examples.
Delicious allows for students to search the web and share their finds in a repository of bookmarks, like hunting and gathering information for the community to share and discuss. Think of taking the Internet and its vast store of information and highlighting it, like we used to highlight important stuff in our old paper textbooks.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Understand
Understanding is:Interpreting, Exemplifying, Summarizing, Inferring, Paraphrasing, Classifying, Comparing, Explaining
In the tech world, this looks like:Advanced Searches, Boolean Searches,Blog Journalling,Tweeting, Categorizing And Tagging, Commenting, Annotating,Subscribing
Tools to Try: Mindmaps! Tools like Mindmaple and MindNode stand out among some of the best mind mapping tools available on the Web. If you want to explore more, check out this article on Lifehacker for their take on the best 5 tools for creating mindmaps.
Students can also get answers to their questions by making use of simple tools like forums, or by conducting Skype interviews.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Apply
Applying is:Implementing, Carrying Out, Using, Executing, Doing
In the tech world, this looks like:Running, Loading, Playing, Operating, Hacking, Uploading, Sharing, Editing , Wiki Editing
Tools to Try: Website/blogging tools like Weebly and Edublogs are the resources you need to do this. For more suggestions, download the second book in our free tools for teachers ebook series, called Tools for Teachers: Writing, Blogging, and Websites .
The best tools here are ones that help you plan a course of action for application. Gantt charts can give you an idea of a timeline for progression and completion. Never built one before? This article on Smartsheet has got you covered.
You may also want to dabble in organized task management applications. For this kind of process, great tools like Basecamp and Asana can help you get the job done.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Analyze
Analyzing is:Comparing, Organising, Deconstructing, Attributing, Outlining, Structuring, Integrating
In the tech world, this looks like:Mashing, Linking, Reverse-Engineering, Cracking, Mind-Mapping, Validating, Calculating
Tools to Try: The tools for Apply are the same kinds of applications that work well for this stage of the Taxonomy.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Evaluate
Evaluating is:Checking, Hypothesizing Critiquing, Experimenting, Judging, Testing, Detecting, Monitoring
In the tech World, this looks like:Blog/Vlog Commenting, Reviewing, Posting, Moderating, Collaborating, Networking, Reflecting, Alpha/Beta Testing
Tools to Try: The key difference between Analyzing and Evaluating is collaboraion. What’s useful is putting your product out there for critique and beta testing.
For evaluating information, tools like Snopes and FactCheck.org are worth looking at. As you use these tools, remember to to “balance check” various news sources and information resources for patterns and connected ideas.Critical Thinking Tools That Help Learners Create
Creating is:Designing, Constructing, Planning, Producing, Inventing, Devising, Making, Building
In the tech world, this looks like:Programming, Filming, animating, Blogging, Video Blogging, Mixing, Remixing, Wiki-ing, Publishing, Videocasting, Podcasting, Directing/Producing
Tools to Try: Students can build digital portfolios using Google Sites. Evernote. and VoiceThread. If they’re into podcasting, get them on Audacity or Podbean .
Blogging tools include the ones mentioned in Apply, along with Wix. WordPress. and Ghost. Video tools to look at are ones such as Jahshaka. WeVideo. or Magisto. You can find more great tools in our ebook Tools for Teachers: Media Development .
With so many different project ideas out there as well as apps to foster critical thinking skills, it’s easy to get caught up in taking too much time to find the right tool. Hopefully, this article will help that process go smoother.
This resource is aimed to help science teachers apply Bloom’s Taxonomy to science skills and content. Unlike other Bloom's Taxonomy resources, this is geared specifically for science teachers. It includes question stems, activities and examples of how to develop tiered questions and level activities specifically for science-based concepts and skills.
This resource can be used to develop tiered questions and activities for:
I hope this resource helps you apply Bloom’s taxonomy to your science teaching. Good luck!
Note: This product is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy.
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kimberlythomas1126 - Submitted on 2/12/2017 9:32:39 AM
ajclarcq - Submitted on 1/24/2017 9:17:47 PM
This is a great resource! Thank you!
edtherapist - Submitted on 10/7/2016 11:40:23 PM
Excellent resource! I like all of your products! Thanks so much!
VParrish - Submitted on 9/18/2016 1:35:14 AM
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abaumher - Submitted on 8/12/2016 9:32:00 PM
swynn - Submitted on 8/10/2016 1:57:45 PM
Great product. Cant wait to implement in my class
jchandler412 - Submitted on 7/19/2016 9:49:15 PM
Love this. Very convenient
Teacher1972 - Submitted on 7/10/2016 11:02:15 AM
This is a great resource! Do you have this for any other subject like reading or math? I look forward to using this with my students in the fall!
elanzer - Submitted on 5/24/2016 10:03:55 PM
These will be a great help next year, I will be teaching Science for the first time!