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Is The Uk A Democracy Essay In Pakistan

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Essay on Democracy in the Uk

Democracy in the Uk

How Democratic is the UK?

Britain, amongst many other countries, claims to be a democracy. Such a claim would suggest that as UK citizens, we have effective influence over government, and over decisions that effect us. However, there has been much controversy over this claim, some arguing that power lies in the hands of just a few, and others standing by the allegation that power in the UK is widely distributed. In this essay, I will be discussing matters such as elections and the influence of the media to clarify just how democratic the UK really is.

One of they key features of a democracy is that the people have the ability to vote whoever they want, a privilege which we as citizens of the UK have. Nonetheless, there is still a large amount of dispute as to whether the voting system in the UK is truly democratic. At UK general elections, we use an electoral system most commonly known as first past the post. This means that to become a member of parliament, all a candidate has to do is gain more votes than any rival in that constituency. Although this system has many strengths, such as the fact that it is simple to understand and that it ultimately represents the views of the people, it also faces many weaknesses. For one, the system provides a lack of choice. There is also a mass of wasted votes, as some seats are so ‘safe’, that there is no point in voting. Liberal democrat leader, Nick Clegg, announced at a party conference meeting: “First past the post is not fit for purpose. It is a relic that deserves to be consigned to the past.”

An electoral system seen to be much fairer and much more democratic than our current system, is the single transferable vote (STV), which is currently being used in Scottish local government elections. Using the STV, parties can stand more than one candidate, who are then ranked in order of preference by the voters. Although this system is a little more complicated, it is one of the most proportionate systems.

Human Rights and Democracy report 2012 - Pakistan

Human Rights and Democracy report 2012 - Pakistan

Latest Update: 31 December 2013

In response to the September Peshawar church bombing, civil society groups formed human shields outside churches in Lahore and Islamabad in mid-October. Groups expressed solidarity with the victims of the Peshawar bombing and gave the message that the majority of Pakistanis opposed militant attacks on the Christian community.

In early October local human rights groups welcomed the government’s continued moratorium on capital punishment and called for a complete review of the death penalty in the country. The government was reported to have scrapped plans to resume executions in the face of international lobbying and after threats by militants to step up attacks. To date no executions have been carried out in Pakistan, although courts continue to award death penalty sentences. We continue to monitor the situation and lobby the Pakistan government not to carry out any more executions.

Following national elections in May 2013, Gender Concerns International welcomed the increased participation of women voters as a step in the right direction in its October report. The international development organisation recommended special funds be allocated from party budgets to fund women candidates and declaring results ‘null and void’ in constituencies where women had been barred from voting. Election tribunals set up to investigate complaints of alleged poll rigging during the May elections were reported in November to have decided only 65 cases out of 339. In December civil society and human rights groups urged provincial governments in Sindh and Punjab to ensure local government elections were conducted according to schedule.

The Walk Free Foundation, an Australian-based rights organisation addressing modern slavery, released its first edition of the Global Slavery Index. As a proportion of the population Pakistan ranked third. Up to 2.2 million people are estimated to be involved in various forms of modern slavery in Pakistan including child slave labour and bonded labour. (International Labour Organisation estimates put the number of child labourers in Pakistan in excess of 12 million). In November and December 37 bonded labourers were freed from a landlord in Mirpukhas, Sindh province.

We continue to receive reports of attacks on Muslim and non-Muslim religious minorities in Pakistan. In November FCO officials met representatives of the UK Ahmadia community who raised concerns about their status in Pakistan. In October the Pakistan Hindu Council in Karachi reported that around 20 Hindu girls a month are kidnapped, forcibly converted and married. They also estimated that around 50 Hindu families per month were migrating from Pakistan to India in response.

The Hazara community in Balochistan continued to face attacks. In November six Hazara coalminers were gunned down by the banned Jaish-ul-Islam group near Macch, Bolan District. Following targeted killings of Shia Muslims in November, and throughout the year, Human Rights Watch called on federal and provincial governments to promptly apprehend and prosecute those responsible for crimes targeting Shias and other groups.

Both Shia and Sunni Muslims were killed during several incidents of sectarian violence in this period. At the start of Muharram in November five Shias were killed in Karachi, followed by what appeared to be a reprisal attack killing six Sunnis several days later. Muharram processions passed off peacefully with the exception of Rawalpindi, where sectarian clashes resulted in 11 deaths and the burning down of a mosque and shops. The city was placed under curfew and increased security measures ensured no further incidents. At the end of December in Karachi four Shias were killed by a bomb outside a Shia place of worship and three members of a Shia party who were candidates to contest local government elections were gunned down.

In October and December the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan urged the federal and provincial governments to hold talks with Baloch insurgents and to investigate properly alleged human rights violations including enforced disappearances, arbitrary arrests, torture, and extrajudicial killings, said to have been committed by security forces and intelligence agencies. In November FCO officials were briefed by UK-based Baloch activists on the situation in the province. Relatives of missing Baloch marched between November and December from Quetta to Karachi. Campaigners from ‘The Voice of the Missing Baloch Persons’ stated that over 14,000 Baloch are ‘missing’. During the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, observed every year on 25 November, civil society organisations expressed concern at the increasing violence against women in Pakistani society. In the largest province, Punjab, according to a non-official count, 5,151 women have been subjected to violence in 2013, 774 murdered, 217 killed for ‘honour’, 1,569 abducted, 706 raped and 427 driven to suicide. In a report submitted to parliament by the Ministry of Law, Justice and Human Rights for the period January 2012 to September 2013, there were 860 ‘honour’ killings, 481 incidents of domestic violence, 90 cases of acid burning, 344 cases of rape and 268 incidents of sexual assault.

In December a UK-based risk analysis company, Maplecroft, in its annual Human Rights Risk Atlas, placed Pakistan in fourth position out of 197 countries posing an “extreme risk” to the human rights of their populations.

Latest Update: 17 October 2013

The last three months continued to be a difficult period for human rights in Pakistan, as a newly elected government faced a number of security challenges across the country.

In July the Pakistan government announced the conversion of the Ministry of Human Rights into a wing within the Ministry of Law and Justice, a move opposed by local civil society and human rights groups. In August Human Rights Watch noted the “impressive gains” made in Pakistan since the restoration of democracy in 2008, but warned these gains could be lost unless the government halted serious human rights abuses.

In a reflection of the growing sectarianism in the wider Muslim world, it was reported in late July that 60 Shias in Parachinar were killed by two suicide bombers on motorbikes from a Tehrik-e Taliban-linked group, Ansarul Mujahideen, seeking to avenge alleged atrocities against Sunni Muslims in Syria and Iraq. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) reported a 42% rise in killings in Karachi for the first six months of 2013, compared to the same period in 2012.

There continue to be reports about mistreatment and extrajudicial killings by the security forces in Balochistan. In July, Pakistan’s attorney general admitted that more than 500 “disappeared” persons are in security agency custody.

We have also received credible reports from international human rights groups about attacks on human rights defenders in Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa provinces. The HRCP reported in September that human rights defenders, including their own staff, were being increasingly targeted and threatened when protecting women. In September the Washington Post reported US intelligence agencies had discovered evidence confirming Pakistani military officials plotting to kill Asma Jahangir, a Pakistani human rights defender.

The de facto moratorium on executions put in place in 2008 by the previous government expired in June. A new President, Mamnoon Hussain, took office in August and, although the new government stated its intention to restore the death penalty, at the time of writing no executions have been carried out. Pakistan has more than 8,000 prisoners on death row, one of the largest populations of prisoners facing execution in the world. We continue to urge the Pakistani authorities not to return to regular executions and recommended to Pakistan during its UN Universal Periodic Review to make the moratorium official.

In September more than 80 Christians were killed and over 130 wounded by two suicide bombers at All Saints Church, Peshawar. The National Assembly unanimously condemned this act and there was a public outcry across all sections of Pakistani society. The Minister for Human Rights and Pakistan, Baroness Warsi, issued a statement condemning the bombings, offering condolences and underlining the UK’s continued support and cooperation with Pakistan in their fight against terror and violent extremism.

In July the Foreign Secretary met with faith leaders at Lahore’s Badshahi Mosque where he discussed issues of religious freedom. In September Baroness Warsi met representatives of UK-based Hazaras at the Foreign Office and heard about the concerns of their community in Quetta.

In August the religious cleric accused of damaging a Quran to falsify evidence in Rimsha Masih’s case was acquitted of all charges due to lack of evidence, as the original witnesses withdrew their statements. In July Sajjad Masih received a life sentence and a fine after being accused of sending blasphemous text messages to religious clerics in Gojra.

During the General Debate of the 68th session of the UN General Assembly in New York, Baroness Warsi hosted a meeting of international ministers, including from Pakistan, to address issues of religious hatred and freedom of religion or belief and to collectively generate greater political will to take action on them.

In August the UN reported a sharp increase in women voters and candidates in Pakistan’s May elections. The number of women voters at every level was counted for the first time and voter turnout for women was an unprecedented 40% of all votes cast. However, reports indicated that women across Pakistan were prevented by male members of their communities from voting. In August women were prevented from voting at a by-election in Mianwali district.

The HRCP reported in September “a problem of pervasive violence against women”. They reported in Lahore alone that police had registered 113 cases of rape and 32 gang-rape cases from January to August this year. The HRCP reported in the first seven months of 2013 that at least 44 women had become targets of acid attacks, seven of whom had died as a result of their injuries. 44 women had been set on fire and 11 had died in such attacks. As many as 451 women had been killed in Pakistan in the name of honour in 2013 by the end of July.

Latest update: 30 June 2013

Pakistan’s new government took office on 5 June, following elections on 11 May. The elections were a crucial milestone in Pakistan’s democratic history. It is the first time that power has transferred democratically between one civilian government and another, after completing a full parliamentary term. This represents a vital step on the path to a strong, stable and democratic Pakistan. These elections are among the most credible in Pakistan’s history, with an improved electoral register and the highest-ever number of women and first time voters. Disaggregated data on voters is not yet available to determine whether excluded groups and minorities fully participated in the elections. However, the Commonwealth Observation Mission noted with concern the manner in which the Ahmadi community is treated with regard the right to vote. To protect that credibility we and other election observers have urged that all allegations of malpractice be thoroughly investigated.

Unfortunately, the election campaign was marred by targeted violence, with more than 150 people having been killed. Whilst some inter-party violence was observed, much of the pre-election violence was carried out by militants against politicians and political parties, workers, election officials and voters, restricting some parties’ ability to hold political rallies and campaign. Those parties that are perceived as “secular” including the ANP, MQM were particularly targeted. However, rejecting terrorist violence and intimidation, some 50 million people in Pakistan went to the ballot box on 11 May, with only a small number of isolated attacks on polling stations.

In the period April to June, reports of sectarian attacks continued. A Shia lawyer and his two sons were shot dead in Karachi in May, and a Shia doctor was critically injured in June. A Shia doctor was killed in Peshawar in June also. Police are investigating, but no arrests have yet been made. The offices of the weekly magazine “The Lahore”, owned by an Ahmadi family have been under siege for the past two months.

The number of internally displaced people has increased over the reporting period with large numbers moving from FATA to neighbouring provinces; others already displaced have been unable to return to their homes due to on-going security operations against non-state armed actors. More than 1 million people are now displaced in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and FATA due to insecurity dating back to 2008 and require continued humanitarian assistance. [SOURCE: OCHA Pakistan FATA displacements situation report 6 June 2013]. Polio vaccination teams continue to be targeted, four vaccination workers have been killed in two separate incidents in Swabi (June) and Peshawar (May).

From a freedom of expression point of view, there was unprecedented media activity in the run up to elections, although the past few months have seen some setbacks. The New York Times bureau chief was expelled just prior to elections; Amnesty International received credible reports of threats to journalists during the election campaign; one journalist was killed in April; and seven newspapers in Quetta are being investigated for printing a press release from an “outlawed” organization.

On women’s rights, Pakistan supports the recommendations of the Commission on the Status of Women meeting in New York in April, and met with key government officials to promote the agenda that Pakistani women’s rights activists had agreed for CSW 57. Unfortunately, in June, 14 female students were killed by a suicide bomber on a women’s university bus in Quetta. It appears that this was an attack on education for females. The hospital where the injured were taken was subsequently attacked by a sectarian group.

Further Information

Why democratic system is weak in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions”

“Why democratic system is weak in Pakistan: Causes and Solutions”

by Jamil Hussain Junejo

Executive Summary – Pakistan has been in quest for stable democratic system from its very inception.The process of its democratization has been slow and passive. Its nature has remained fragile. It has been showing high vulnerability towards non democratic interventions. Besides, it has been easily falling prey to non civilian forces. As a result, Pakistan has been continuously failing to offer what a democracy promises. Such pathetic scenario has various reasons behind it at all three levels: State, government and society.

This Essay attempts to pin point and analyze the reasons behind such fragile and weak nature of democracy in Pakistan and extends recommendations along with identifying various means and players especially youth for strengthening democratic process in Pakistan to make it promising and delivering.

Introduction. – From very its start, Pakistan has choiced democratic form of government for itself. Its founders had ardently supported and emphasized for democratic system that could ideally permeate the governance structure and body politic of Pakistan; Quaid Azam Muhammd Ali Jinnah’s speech at the Staff College on June 14, 1948 is the witness of his staunch support for democracy as corresponding structure for the polity of Pakistan to make it people friendly and welfare state. However, it is an other fact that Quaid Azam Muhammd Ali Jinnah himself laid the foundation of non-democratic trends through centralizing structure of Muslim Leauge, dissolving non democratically Sindh Assembly and Ministry of Khan Sahab in NWFP in 1948. Despite all this, what he choiced and dreamt for Pakistan about system is undoubtedly democracy. But unfortunately being constitutionally a democratic country, Pakistan entirely fails to offer what constitutional democracies offer viz, sovereign parliament, free, fair and regular elections, supremacy of constitution, independent Judiciary, rule of law, civilian control over the armed forces, political life free from military involvement, safety to minority rights, provision of basic human needs and guarantee of freedoms of movement, expression, association and assembly.

Contrary to dreams ,hopes and promises ,What Pakistan offers is the chequered history of democracy and unstable democratic process.Ironically, the country’s constitution has been abrogated twice (1958 and 1969) and suspended thrice (1977, 1999 and 2007) .More than half of its political life has been encroached by military generals. Five elected governments have been removed by army.Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the founder of political vibrancy, mass based politics and giver of Atomic power to Pakistan was ruthlessly executed through judicial murder.Ex-prime ministers, and Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto were exiled.

Causes. Nothing exists without any reason in universe; creation of everything carries reason with itself. More ever, According to principle of “Cause and Effect” unless the root causes of any problem are not accurately identified and thoroughly diagnosed, problem can’t be solved on sustainable basis. Therefore, let’s find and discuss the causes behind such weak, vulnerable and dented face and status of democracy in Pakistan and try to reach at workable solutions.

Colonial Inheritances and Institutional Imbalance .

From time of its very creation, Pakistan has been experiencing institutional imbalance. Its roots go back to British period. Pakistan inherited administrative, political and legal legacies of British period .From political and adminstrative legacies point of view, Pakistan inherited high institutional imbalance characterized with strong and organized civil and military bureaucracies, weak1 Political institutions and non-democratic political parties. As a result, it lacked strong, dynamic and sustainable political institutions which could hold regular elections based on universal franchise, could build trust of masses into democracy, could protect democratic process against constitutional transgression and could provide a conducive environment for democracy to flourish and could correspond to desires and aspirations of masses.

Muslim Leauge which is credited to creation of Pakistan was a movement not a well-structured and deeply rooted political entity2 that could offer post partition program, could counter the power of army and bureaucracy and could offer corresponding structure to desires and needs of masses after the partition. Besides, League was non democratic in its nature led by elitists3.Consequently, It could not produce first line aswell second line leadership embedded with love for democratic norms and values in particular and overall democratic culture in general .

In this backdrop, administrative supremacy coupled with absence of elections based on universal franchise4 in particular and lack of democratic culture and process in general facilitated bureaucrats to rein the country from 1947 to 1958. Their periods is characterized with dummy and rubber stamped parliaments, abrupt and non democratic dissolutions of assemblies, political intrigues, bickering and quarrelling, inefficiency, abrupt and fast changes of regimes.

Frequent intervention of Non civilian forces into political domain .

Failure of bureaucratic regimes created space for army which was more organized than even civilian bureaucracies to intervene into political domain of country .formal involvement of army into civilian matters begun from marshalaw in Lahore in 1953 to control the riots between Ahmedis and Sunnies. Thereafter from 1958 army has ruled the country with short sighs, as short as of new born baby, of so called democratic regimes. Field Marshal law Ayoub Khan ruled the country from 1958 to 1969, General Yahya Khan from 1969 to 1971, General Ziaul Haq from 1977 to 1989, General Pervez Musharraf from 1999 to 20085.

All four military regimes have remained characterized with impositions of Marshallaw, ban on political parties, censorship on media, dissolution of assemblies and abrogation or suspension of constitutions. Thus, they destroyed political institutions and frustrated the forces viz media, political parties that support and channelize consolidation of democracy.

One among the major forces which counter the military interventions into political domain and extra constitutional steps are genuine political parties with mass based support. But unfortunately Pakistan has been lacking strong and efficient party system which is very vital ingredient of Democracy. Democracy can neither exist nor can consolidate its process without strong, vibrant, vigilant and efficient political parties.

Political parties play indispensible role in strengthening democracy in various ways. Parties translate various values and aspects of democracy into reality; they work to institutionalize the diversity of opinions, the beauty of democracy; translate ideological strength of masses into organizational shape; work as channel to elect representatives; serve as mean whereby power is peacefully transformed; serve as platform to mobilize, sensitize and educate public and stand as bridge between public and government. In order to do all these tasks in letter and spirit, Political parties need to be systematically networked, deeply rooted into masses and internally democratic and operationally efficient, immune to internal divisions, sustaining worst times and outliving the death of its founder(s).

But, unfortunately Party system in Pakistan has remained very weak. Resultantly, it has created space for nonpolitical forces to emerge into political arena. It is proven fact that, apart from other reasons behind the overt and covert rule of dictators in Pakistan, absence of strong party system has remained one of the potent causes. Such non democratic orientation of political parties has weakened the culture of competition, bred nepotism and created incompetency which has obstructed the democratic process of parties’ aswell country.

Non Democratic Social structure

The nature and structure of society translates itself into nature and structure of political institutions. Political institutions don’t emerge in vaccum; they are expression of social institutions. Political and societal compositions interplay and influence each an other. That is why; it is said that democracy is not external but internal Phenomenon6. You cannot plant it like an artificial tree but can set up it through a particular process of democratization. Social structure of Pakistan is by and large feudal. From very its pre partition time. Two forces viz British rulers and Muslim Leuage,ironically who claimed and still claims champion of democracy ,have supported consolidation of feudal structure in the regions which constitute present Pakistan7.

Feudalism and democracy are two quite controversial norms: Feuldlism is driven by principles of one person show, oppression, bondage, slavery. Whereas democracy is driven by principles of participation, peace, equality, pluralism and freedom. Owing to this, the nature of parliaments and political parties has remained non democratic in Pakistan. Pakistan has been remaining at the mercy of either these feudal politicians or military generals.

One among the reasons which has made India to emerge as democratic polity is that it has abolished feudalism from very its inception. But Muslim Leauge perpetuated and consolidated this system because it was party of feudal itself where as Congress owing to its class question orientation has been anti feudalism.

Post partition history of Pakistan is marked with some initiatives taken for land reforms to loose the grip of feudalism.Ayoub then President and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto then prime introduced the reforms. But the reforms introduced by both were ineffective, secondary in their nature and devoid of genuine intent8.

Such feudal structure of society of Pakistan has been obstructing democratic process into various ways. It has translated non democratic trends into political culture. Secondly, it has impeded development of participatory culture. Thirdly, it has formed elitist orientations of politics. Fourthly, it has impeded Bourgeoisie middle class which is support mechanism to democracy .Lastly; it has been obstructing free and independent choice of public in elections which is basic and indispensable component of free elections.

Manipulation of election process .

Free and fair elections are major component of representative democracy. For democracy is, in one way, name of popular government which is not possible without free and fair process of election that guarantees genuine representation of masses in Parliament. Besides, Elections are the source of peaceful regime change. People resort to violent means of change if elections can’t represent their aspirations, needs, and fails to offer them due and fair space. In this regard, Pakistan has dismal image to show. All the general elections except of 1971 and 2006 to some extent, have been manipulated in one or other way either at pre, during or post phase of the elections.

The manipulation has been worstly demonstrated into form of political victimization, gerrymandering, stuffed ballot boxes, intimidation of polling staff ,pressurizing masses, use of state assets and violating rule of Election commission set for the election.Consequently, elections could not have been instrumental to determine the will of the people and have eroded trust of masses in democracy. If election could have proven to be instrumental in representing genuine will of people, the elected representatives must have elevated dignity of parliament, worked for strengthening of democracy and for welfare of masses whereby developing their trust in democracy.

The problem of democracy is solvable in Pakistan, if genuine steps are taken with cohesive and integrated approach. Let me extend few suggestions for strengthening democratic system, process and culture in Pakistan.

For state. • Feudalism should be immediately abolished to enable elections genuine instrumental of people’s wishes; to create participatory culture; to develop democratic values and to transform social stagnancies into dynamism which all together help consolidation of democratic process.

• Judiciary should be made Independent so as to enable it to ensure implementation of rule of law; to undo and stop all legal and constitutional transgressions.

• Parliament should be made sovereign. A specific channel should be launched in parliament that air proceedings to make masses aware of what is going into it. It will make legislatures serious and responsible in their conduct and will push them to chalk out people friendly policies which in turn will make governance efficient and will build trust of masses in democracy. In this way, space and need of call to army to intervene in political domain will dwindle largely.

• Supremacy of constitution should be ensured. Article six9 should be practiced in letter and spirit to check all constitutional abrogation which has been by and large affecting democratic process in Pakistan.

• Free and fair election should be ensured through independent Election Commission inorder to prevent the rigging.

• Democracy education should be incorporated in the syllabus at all levels of education to promote and create democratic values, norms and practices in youth in particular and in masses in general.

• Political party rules 2002 should be strictly implemented in order to help democratic structure and conduct of political parties.

• Funds should be allocated on the basis of membership to political parties inorder to strengthen them to work effectively for democracy.

For Political parties :

• Political Parties should develop well defined people friendly ideology, expand their organizational network, perform structurally and operationally democratic, develop strong coordination between their lower and higher tires. train their staff and impart democratic education to masse to give outlook of political entities which could generate the atmosphere of democracy within and outside of them,counter the supremacy of non political institutions ,Counter the constitutional transgression through public support mustered by restoring their trust in political parties.

For civil Society organizations .

Civil society organization should

• Impart democracy education to general maseess, youth, political workers media persons and writers ;

• enhance capacity of political parties and other stake holders inorder to make them vigilant, vibrant and responsive towards question and issue of democracy;

• impart liberal ,progressive and political education to masses inorder to create political society to create conducive atmosphere for democracy;

• lobby with the lawmakers to pursue them to take concrete initiatives for consolidation of democracy such as incorporation of democracy education in syllabus, allocation of funds for political parties etc;

• launch advocacy programs to highlight non democratic trends and actions;

• launch capacity building programs for youth to inculcate love for politics and democracy into them

Youth is the most significant part of any human society. They have played indispensible role in emancipation of human being .With fresh and hot blood, youth is always inclined towards activism, dynamism, change, and novelty. Populations of Pakistan constitute almost 35 percent of youth. Therefore, they also share the onus of enhancing democracy in Pakistan. Their indifferent attitude towards democracy in particular and towards politics in general will counter product rather produce constructively for consolidation of democracy. Therefore, youth of Pakistan should

• join political parties after academic education because what execute plans for democracy most effectively are political parties ;

• should raise the issue and question of democracy in print and electronic media;

• impart democracy education into their constituencies;

• register their votes and take active part in election process;

• join national and international youth organizations which work for democracy.

Short analysis reveals that Pakistan has been badly experiencing chequered history of democracy. Weak political institutions, frequent military interventions, frequent dissolution of civilian governments, Engineered and flawed election process, weak party system, lack of constitutionalism and lack of rule of laws has been obstructing way for promotion of genuine democracy in Pakistan which would be characterized with sovereign parliament, free, fair and regular elections, supremacy of constitution, independent Judiciary, rule of law, civilian control over the armed forces, political life free from military involvement, safety to minority rights, provision of basic human needs and guarantee of freedom of movement, expression, association and assembly. In this backdrop,Onus lies on State institutions, political parties, civil society organizations and youth to play part of their role as enumerated in recommendations given above to create space for democracy to entrench itself firmly in Pakistan as it could be delivering and substantial.

References and Notes

Von Bettina Robotka writes in “The Dilemma of Democracy in Pakistan “that “The weakness of the political institutions in Pakistan is – together with the pre-modern, feudal and tribal socio-economic structures – one of the major reasons for the weakness of Pakistani democracy”

2. Nasim Yousif writes in “Why democracy failed in Pakistan” That From the very beginning, the Muslim League lacked some Of the most fundamental tenets of a well-structured political organization: (i) a genuine Program for the welfare of the masses, (ii) members from the public, who elect local and National leaders at regularly held intra-party elections, and (iii) a grassroots following”

3. Nasim Yousif quotes in same article that “Barrister Aftab Iqbal (son of Allama Iqbal) would write, the League was controlled by “a few half educated, selfish and ambitious Nawabs and Muslim capitalists from Muslim minority provinces under the leadership of Mr.Jinnah… [who exploited] the ignorance and poverty of the Muslim masses” (The Tribune, Lahore, July 25, 1946)” “According to The Tribune of September 11, 1941, “Huq stated…[that the] principles of democracy and autonomy in the All-India Muslim League were being subordinated ‘to the arbitrary wishes of a single individual [Quaid-e-Azam].”

4. First general election based on Universal franchise was held in 1971in Pakistan.

5. Source: Time line of Pakistan History

6. Feudal Ramos in an interview with News Week has beautifully said “To establish democratic institutions, democratically oriented people and overall culture of democracy and rule of law is very difficult if efforts are coming from outside. It is more enduringly established if it is coming from among the people.”

7.Ishtiaq Ahmed writes in Daily Times on 30 June 2002 that After the British had ruthlessly crushed the 1857 uprising, they established a more stable structure of landlordism by conferring property rights on those who remained loyal to them

8. Zulfiqar Shah writes in his article “Question of land reforms in Pakistan”published in Daily Dawn on 2 February 2008 That In January 1959, General Ayoub Khan’s government issued land reform regulations that aimed ‘to boost agricultural output, promote social justice, and ensure security of tenure.’ A ceiling of about 200 hectares of irrigated land and 400 hectares of non-irrigated land was placed on individual ownership; compensation was paid to owners for land surrendered. Numerous exemptions, including title transfers to family members, dampened the impact of the ceilings. Slightly fewer than one million hectares of land were surrendered, of which a little more than 250,000 hectares were sold to about 50,000 tenants. The land reforms failed to lessen the power or privileges ofthelandedelite.

In March 1972, the Z. A. Bhutto government announced further land reform measures, which went into effect in 1973. The landownership ceiling was lowered to about five hectares of irrigated land and about twelve hectares of non-irrigated land; exceptions were limited to an additional 20 per cent of land for owners having tractors and tube wells. The ceiling could also be extended for poor-quality land. The owners of confiscated land received no compensation, and beneficiaries were not charged for land distributed.

9.Article six of constitution of Pakistan reads as:

(1) Any person who abrogates or attempts or conspires to abrogate, subverts or attempts or conspires to subvert the Constitution by use of force or show of force or by other unconstitutional means shall be guilty of high treason.

(2) Any person aiding or abetting the acts mentioned in clause (1) shall likewise be guilty of high treason.

(3) [5] [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall by law provide for the punishment of persons found guilty of high treason

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Each stage of society’s development tends to generate a new form of government that reflects the changes in social relations between the citizens and their government. The emergence and rise of new elites collides against the monopoly and privileges of the old ruling elite. What in crisis times initiates so-called “people’s revolutions” often leads to civil wars. But, because the new ruling elite maintain the paradigm of autocracy under the guise of democracy, such “democratic revolutions” only result in a transference of power from one group of elites to the next, something which is of little benefit to the well-being and development of society. And with each social movement, the process repeats itself again and again.

A new political system as a real Democratic Revolution.
http://www.modelgovernment.org/

A multipolar democratic governance that uses revolutionary decision making system and comprising several independent parties with a movable centre of joint decisions, would put an end to discord and would bring society together. It would also open a new, evolutionary way of development without social turmoil and without social and economic cataclysms. A working multi-party system within the government guarantees multiculturalism, tolerance and social stability within community.

quite right. Nonpolitical elements and institutions must refrain from entering into political erena……..

Sadaf Iqbal says:

Our history is replete with judicial transgressions and military interventions and implications of both still make one shivering. Judiciary too was not behind in participating politics. Judges of the superior courts along with the officials of the armed forces also take the oath with an additional requirement for armed forces personnel they are required to steer clear of political activities. But Judiciary never upheld the oath nor respected the constitution. I am Fed up to the back teeth by the word change through military intervention and pitting Judiciary against democracy. Please have a look on history before inviting another reprehensible change like past.

koi best dy sckta keh why democracy weak in pakistan

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The Roman Sindhi Script would help in the progression of the promotion and growth of the Sindhi language in the digital world and through this we wouldn't have many problems in getting technology platforms to adopt it.

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M. A. Jinnah’s Speech


"You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State." - Founder of Pakistan - M. A. Jinnah.

“Minorities to whichever community they may belong, will be safeguarded. Their religion of faith or belief will be secure. There will be no interference of any kind with their freedom of worship. They will have their protection with regard to their religion, faith, their life, and their culture. They will be, in all respects, the equal citizens of Pakistan without any distinction of caste or creed.”

M. A. JINNAH, July 14, 1947, at a press conference in New Delhi.

"Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world."

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Flickr Photos Express yourself (Comments) Imagine – John Lennon

Imagine there's no heaven
It's easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for today.

Imagine there's no countries
It isn't hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peace.

You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the world.

You may say I'm a dreamer
But I'm not the only one
I hope someday you'll join us
And the world will live as one.
- John Lennon.

SINDH BREATHS WHEN RIVER INDUS GUSH.- Shah Latif

Baba Bulle Shah -Masjid dhaa de, Mandir dhaa de, Dhaa de jo kuch dhenda,
Par kissi da dil na dha vee, Rab dilla wich rehnda hae
Translation - Destroy a mosque, destroy a temple, destroy everything in sight. But don't break a human heart, for that is where God resides - -Baba Bulle Shah

Utho meri dunya ke gariboN ko jagA do, KAkh-e-umrA ke dar-o-deewAr hilA do, Jis khet se dehkAN ko muyassar na ho rozi, Us khet ke har khosha-e-gandam ko jalA do Poet Iqbal (1877-1938)

AWWAL ALLAH NOOR UPAYA, KUDRAT KAY SABH BANDEY. EK NOOR TAY SABH JAG UPAJIYA, KAUN BHALAY KO MANDEY
Translation - PEACE IS ALLAH, PEACE IS GOD, PEACE IS BHAGWAN. WITHOUT PEACE, EVERY HUMAN, BECOMES BEAST. - Kabir, from Guru Granth ji

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Follow Blog via Email Name of Excellence in alternative & borderless journalism.Together we stitch the world & make a difference. Leading today for tomorrow. Sindh lives here SUFI POET SHAH ABDUL LATIF

When the world was still to be born
When Adam was still to receive his form
Then my relationship began
When I heard the Lord's voice
A voice sweet and clear
I said "YES" with my heart
And formed a bond with land (Sindh)
I love
When all of us were one, My bond
then begun.
- Secular Sindhi Sufi (mystic) poet of Peace, Shah Abdul Latif (1689 - 1752)
* * * * *
SAAEIN SADAAEIN KAREIN MATHE SINDH SUKKAR DOST MITHAA DILDAAR AALAM SAB AABAD KAREIN
Translation - May Lord bless Sindh along with entire world.
SHAH ABDUL LATIF, Secular Sindhi Sufi poet ( 1689 – 1752 )
*****
Religions got the people confused in the country
The mullahs, the Pundits, the Sheiks misled the masses
Some bowed themselves in prayers and some settled
in the temples
People of mind never got closer to love even.

Sachal Sarmast, Secular Sindhi Sufi poet (1739–1829)
*****
"The brave speak the truth Let others like it or not; For the talk of false friendship we care not."

Sachal Sarmast, Secular Sindhi Sufi poet (1739–1829)
*****
"Aad sach, jugaad sach. Hai bhi sach, Nanak, hosi bhi sach."

Guru Nanak Jee. - Translation: truth is the beginning and the end. Nanak, truth is now and truth is all there will be tomorrow.

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You are using this web page just for viewing purpose only. All users are using this blog at their own risk and agree not hold "IAOJ" liable for any thing resulting from visiting of this blog or any other blog maintained by IAOJ.
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The views & opinions expressed on this blog are in no way representative of the views or opinions of the blog.
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SAVE INDUS RIVER

HOW COME BAGLIHAR DAM WRONG & KALABAGH DAM RIGHT? “WHEN INDIA DIVERTS PAKISTAN’S WATER, IT IS A TRAVESTY OF JUSTICE UNDER INTERNATIONAL RIVER LAW, WHEN PUNJAB DOES THE SAME TO SINDH, IT IS DEEMED NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN.”.- Humaira Rahman, a Sindhi-Canadian environmentalist.

"IF YOU WANT TO KILL RIVER BUILDING DAMS IS THE BEST WAY TO DO IT." - CANADIAN DOCUMENTARY MAKER MICHAEL BUCKLEY.

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

- All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
- Every one has the right to freedom of opinion & expression this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference & to seek, receive & impart information and ideas through any media & regardless of frontiers.

Recent Posts Rabindranath Tagore

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls; Where the words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by Thee into ever-widening thought and action-- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.

The process of change

- [You cannot expect change to happen overnight. The process of change is slow and gradual. It is a work in progress all the time. It happens through legislation, it happens through social transformation, attitude change, and mindset change. So it is indeed a work in progress all the time. You have to keep working on it, without worrying too much to see the outcome in your lifetime. Kaifi Azmi]
- [Change can come in either of two important ways: start behaving positively or stop behaving negatively- Dr. Phill]
- [Freedom cannot exist without discipline, self-discipline, and rights cannot exist without duties. Those who do not observe their duties do not deserve their rights. - Oriana Fallaci.]

Amar Fayaz Buriro – “Sky’s The Limit”

Amar has endeavoured to bring this latest technology to the service of major Pakistani languages such as Sindhi & urdu. He realized that, these languages of his country faced formidable challenges due to non-compatibility with browsers designed especially for the handheld devices such as tablets and cellphones. One of the major issues so far as Urdu was concerned was the use of the traditionally preferred Nastaleeq style on the web. Finally he was able to create the first Web based Nastaleeq font “Amar Nastaleeq”, which is a lightweight font that allows robust and reliable conversion to various embeddable formats for use across major OS’s, browsers and devices. Meanwhile, he also worked at localizing the world’s leading CMS Joomla for Urdu and Sindhi. Today he is developer of more than 50 multilingual & complex websites (including this) which use advanced PHP programming. He also found that majority of the programmers and web developers in our country use nulled versions, cracked software and pirated scripts. This unfortunately is the major cause why most of the websites get hacked and the database management has security issues. Deviating from this practice, he chose to use neat and clean programming and licensed scripts.
Read more about Amar Fayaz » Click Here

Our planet doesn't come with a spare. We all have a choice we can continue to drain natural resources while creating more and more pollution or we can make a change we can. And until we find another planet Earth.

Tao Te Ching (4th cent. BCE)

Weapons are the tools of violence;
all decent men detest them.

Weapons are the tools of fear;
a decent man will avoid them
except in the direst necessity
and, if compelled, will use them
only with the utmost restraint.
Peace is his highest value.
If the peace has been shattered,
how can he be content?
His enemies are not demons,
but human beings like himself.
He doesn't wish them personal harm.
Nor does he rejoice in victory.
How could he rejoice in victory
and delight in the slaughter of men?

He enters a battle gravely,
with sorrow and with great compassion,
as if he were attending a funeral.
--Tao Te Ching (4th cent. BCE)

BBC News

The US president has traditionally attended and it will still go ahead in Mr Trump's absence.

North Korean leader's half brother was killed by a nerve agent in the airport two weeks ago.

Widow of Srinivas Kuchibhotla, who was killed in a suspected race crime, tells the BBC he came to the US "full of dreams".