What Type Of Government Did Italy Have After Ww1 Essay - Essay for you

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What Type Of Government Did Italy Have After Ww1 Essay

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Luxembourg in ww one - Axis History Forum

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Balrog Member Posts: 844 Joined: 17 Feb 2003, 16:09 Location: USA, North Carolina/Manchukuo/Dominican Republic

i have been reading about luxembourg during world war one. it was attacked at the beginning of the war as part of the german army's preplanned stragtegy of defeating france. luxembourg had important rail way junctions.

the grand duchess who ruled luxembourg was informed that german army columns were marching toward the border of her country. the grand duchess jumped in her car and sped down to intercept the german army by herself. she pulled her car across the road and blocked the german 4th army from crossing the border. baffled german soldiers did stop. a german army officer approached her and told her she would have to move, and that they would have to follow orders and invade luxembourg. the grand duchess was driven back to her palace by a german officer in her car.

as far as i've read, the luxembourg army did nothing to impede the german army and surrendered.

in 1923 the grand duchess awarded medals for "resistance". what kind of partisan activity did people in luxembourg engage in? i can't find reference to any.

who were these people who were rewarded for "resistance" activity?

what kind of partisan activity(if any) went on during ww 1 in luxembourg?

what happened to the luxembourg army after it surrendered?

what happended to the grand duchess during ww1? was she under house arrest in luxembourg? held prisoner in germany?

any photos of the grand duchess who ruled during ww1?

any photos of occupied luxembourg?

any photos of the luxembourg army before ww1?

was there any fighting in luxembourg(between central and allies armies) in ww1?

when was luxembourg liberated?

Grand Duchess Maria Adelaide was booted out after WW1 for 'co-operating' with the Germans.Her sister,Charlotte,took over the Grand Duchy in 1919.

'Resistance' doesn't anyways mean taking up arms--in the Luxembourg case I think the passive type pre-dominated.

The German 16th Infantry Division was the first unit to cross the Luxembourg frontier in 1914---a stop,start affair prompted by the famous exchange between the Kaiser and Moltke when the former taked aloud of stopping the Western advance and marching all forces against Russia.Moltke suffered a nervous collapse and bewailed that the trains could not be turned around.

Balrog Member Posts: 844 Joined: 17 Feb 2003, 16:09 Location: USA, North Carolina/Manchukuo/Dominican Republic

luxembourg was invaded by german troops on july 31,1914. the german army was commanded by general tessmar. apparently he became the military governor until the german army evacuated in 1918. there was no armed resistence, the grand duchess marie adeliade and her elderly prime minister paul eyschen surrendered and the extent of government response was an official protest sent to the kaiser of germany.

the germans maintained a tight grip on the country throughout the entire war. there was little opportunity to resist the german army. travel for luxembourg citizens was highly restricted, the press was heavily censored, and food was rationed to the luxembourg population throughout the war.

thousands of luxembourg citizens did managed to take of arms and fight the germans. 3200 luxembourgers joined the french army. most were living abroad at the time the country was invaded, but a few managed to escape even after occupation and join up. of the 3200 luxembourgers that joined the french army, by 1918, 2800 had been killed in action. i believe for such a small country that would be a huge loss of military age males.

on november 6, 1918, with the germany on the brink of collapse, general tessmar ordered german troops to evacuate the country.

general pershing entered luxembourg with american and french troops on november 18, 1918.

the luxembourg government and grand duchess marie adelaide were extremely unpopular with not only the allies, but with the native population for having failed to resist the germans and being to cooperative with german government and generals. there was popular resentment of the grand duchess and on janurary 9,1919, a debate in parliament sparked pro republican demostrations that flooded the streets of the capital with demonstrators. the french army had to be called in to restore order. three days later, grand duchess marie adelaide abdicated in favor of her sister charlotte and went into exile.

the debate was not over. pro republican groups demanded a referendum on the future of the monarchy. on september 28, 1919 the vote was a landslide to keep the monarchy. there was still a strong feeling for monarchy to be maintained, but as well a fear that a republican government would become a secular government like france, and the strongly roman catholic population did not want that separation of church and state to occur in luxembourg. the parliament did vote on may 15,1919 to limit the power of the grand duchy's monarch, but the grand duchess did retain her veto(though it has not been used again).

during the paris peace conference, belgium attempted to annex luxembourg, along with the dutch provinces of north barbount and south limberg. additionally the belgians demanded that the german territories of morsnet,eupen,and malmedy also be incorporated into a greater belgium. the treaty of versailles refused this. luxembourg's independence was guaranteed in articles 40 and 41 of the treaty of versailles.


i am looking for photos of either grand duchess.

does anyone have a photo of general tessmar? i would like to know his army record. it does not seem that he was involved in anymore military activity after invading luxembourg, is that correct?was general tessmar a very good general? he seemed to spend the entire war sitting in luxembourg. was he an elderly general pulled out of retirement for occupation duty?

i am still looking for photos of luxembourg during ww1.

the fortress in luxembourg was built over a period of centuries and said to be impregnable. does anyone have photos of the luxembourg fortess called the "gibraltar of the north"?


does anyone have information of the luxembourg volunteers in the french army? any photos? 2800 killed in action out of 3200 volunteers . i can see that numbers like that would probably effect most of the families in the country. does anyone know the 1914 population of luxembourg?

Last edited by Balrog on 10 Oct 2003, 00:29, edited 1 time in total.

Generalmajor a.D. Richard Teßmar: 2 Feb 1853 - 15 Sep 1927 was already a retired officer at the outbreak of WW1. He was recalled to duty initially as the Landwehr Inspector of the VIII Army Corps and then as the commander of troops in Luxembourg and as the Plenipotentiary of the Quartermaster General. He had as such no field command and his appointment was administrative. He was a former Field Artillery Officer having commanded the 2nd Lower Alsatian Field Artillery Regiment Nr. 67 from 11 Sep 1903 until 14 April 1907.

Teßmar did not command troops in the invasion of Luxembourg. The Prussian 16th Infantry Division (Generalleutnant Georg Fuchs) of VIII Army Corps, 4th Army occupied Luxembourg.

Balrog Member Posts: 844 Joined: 17 Feb 2003, 16:09 Location: USA, North Carolina/Manchukuo/Dominican Republic

does anyone have a photo of general tessmar?

does anyone have a photo of the german kaiser in luxembourg?

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After the monarchy in Italy was abolished on June 2nd, 1946, the country became a democratic republic with the passing of a new Constitution.

The Constitutional Court of Italy in Palazzo della Consulta.

After the monarchy in Italy was abolished on June 2, 1946, the country became a democratic republic with its constitution. Italy has a Parliamentary Republic type of government, complete with the Executive, Judiciary, and Legislative divisions. The 1948 Constitution provides the framework for Italy’s government. The Constitutional Court monitors government’s actions to ensure they uphold the Constitution.

President Of Italy

Italy’s President is the head of state and a symbol of national unity. Both houses of Parliament elect the President for a seven- year term and may be re-elected after the completion of the first term. The President is tasked to appoint the Prime Minister as well as five judges to the Constitutional Court. The President checks legislation to verify their constitutionality, and can veto a bill and warrant parliament to re-draft the bill. The President declares war and ratifies international treaties with approval from parliament. The president heads the Supreme Council of Defence, being the commander of the armed forces, and the Supreme Council of Defence. The current president of Italy is Sergio Mattarella who took office on February 3, 2015, after the resignation of Giorgio Napolitano in January the same year.

Prime Minister Of Italy

The President appoints the Prime Minister and assumes the position after Parliament’s approval. The premier chooses the ministers for various departments to form the government. The government must win the approval of a parliamentary majority through a vote of confidence. The government oversees the nation’s executive functions including implementation of public policy. The government can also table new bills in the legislature. The prime Minister is also the president of the council of ministers. The incumbent Premier is Matteo Renzi since February 22, 2014.

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Italy has a bicameral parliamentary system that is comprised of two houses of parliament. 630 members represent constituencies in the Chamber of Deputies while 315 members represent regions in the Senate. Both houses have similar powers and approve bills into legislation. Deputies are required by law to be between 18 and 25 years while Senators are between 25 to 40 years. The Deputies and Senators are elected for five-year terms. The Parliament can warrant the government to resign if they give a vote of no confidence.

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Italy’s Supreme Court is the Court of Cassation, which judges appeals from lower courts on points of law. The Court of Cassation makes sure that the law is interpreted uniformly across the nation. Under the Court of Cassation is the Court of Appeal, which hears appeals from lower courts. A network of criminal, civil, and administrative courts are tasked with the administration of justice in the country. Italian judges are public officials and are required to cultivate a degree of impartiality. The Supreme Council of the Magistrature maintains the judiciary’s independence.

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Diad Germany Cause WW1? Essay, Research Paper

Did Germany cause World War 1?

Although in the Treaty of Versailles Germany was to accept full responsibility for World War 1 this in not necessarily the case. Many factors have to be taken into account when considering the cause of World War 1. Germany may have been primarily responsible for the war but the other major powers must accept some of the blame for failing to prevent it. The conflict resulting from the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinard should have been local and confined but due to a series of factors, militarism, the alliance system, nationalism, this one incident led to the greatest war Europe had ever seen. As a result of underlying hostilities the assassination led to a chain of events that ensured war on a wide scale.

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Along with the hostile divisions in Europe came the expansion of armies and navies thus leading to an arms race. This arms race was also precipitated by the increase in war budgets after 1900. Attempts to restrict the arms race, like The Hague conference in 1899 and 1907 failed due to mutual suspicion. The great powers also elaborated plans for mass mobilisation. It was thought that a war would be decided in the opening phases and therefore who ever got into the field first and assembled the largest army in the shortest time would have the advantage over it?s rival. When World War 1 began Germany ultimately mobilised eleven million troops, France mobilised twenty percent of her population or 7,800,000 and Russia mobilised sixteen million men (White Heat 7). By 1914 the general staffs in Germany, France, Russia and Austria favoured war. Germany and Britain were involved in a naval race, which caused antagonism between the two powers due to Britain?s pride in her naval fleet and the necessity of it to maintain her Empire. She saw Germany?s continued expansion as a threat. Sir John Fisher of the British navy suggested that the navy should ?Copenhagen the German Fleet? before it was too late (Europe Since 1870 105). Admiral Tirpitz of Germany opposed any plans for naval disarmament. Von Hotzendorf, the Austrian Chief of Staff, had been pushing for a preventative war against Serbia since 1906.

Before World War 1 Europe was in the mind set for war, as I have described above, countries were expanding their armies and making plans for war. One of the most famous plans of war was the Schlieffen plan. This plan devised by General Von Schlieffen was based on mass mobilisation. It was believed that in the event of a war it would take Germany thirty-six hours to mobilise, France forty-eight hours and Russia three weeks (Europe Since 1870 105). The Germans would thus attack France first and then after defeating France go on to attack Russia. From these plans we can see that the Chiefs of Staff in Europe were expecting and planning for a war. The military leaders in Europe played a large role in influencing their governments to go to war.

Jingoism also played a major role in the outbreak of war. Jingoism is extreme or excessive patriotism. The public was prepared for a war they wanted to show how powerful and glorious their country was. By 1914 there was nearly one hundred and eighty books written on the subject of major war in various different languages: Der Weltkreig (1904), depicted a German conflict with Britain. Le Queux?s The Invasion (1910) sold over a million copies (Reasons for War 2). These books prepared the public for the fears and the excitement of war. There was a sense of pure nationalism running through society, that never again would Europe display this kind of patriotic fervour, the conflict to come would destroy it (The Origins of War 5).

Nationalism was also a cause of World War1. Austria?s unfair treatment of the minorities in her Empire caused the spread of Balkan nationalism. Serbia had been forced to hand over Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria to obtain her independence and due to Serbia flourishing as a nation the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina became restless under Austrian rule. Serbia encouraged anti-Austrian feeling which antagonised Austria and led her to annex Bosnia in 1908 breaking an agreement with Russia leading to the Bosnian Crisis. Russia?s policy of Pan-slavism also caused friction with Austria. Pan-slavism was the idea that all Slav peoples should be ?freed? from Ottoman and Hapsberg control. These antagonisms led to an alliance between Russia and Serbia. There were also wars in the Balkans during the period 1912-13. Austria saw the assassination of the Archduke as the pretext to go to war with Serbia (1914 8). Alliances were formed during this period that would be still evident during World War 1.

It is also thought that the system of government at the time also contributed to war. Capitalists saw the war as an opportunity to make enormous profits, thus leading them to put pressure on governments to go to war. At this time the arms industry was flourishing, there were Krupps in Germany, Armstrong and Withworth in Britain, Nobel in Sweden and Seinder in France. The war was also seen as a way to distract people from industrial strife that was evident at the time such as working conditions. The intensive industrialisation which occurred in Britain and Germany in the thirty years before 1914 put the tools of war into the hands of men who were prepared to use them? (Europe Since 1870 105).

It the days after the Archdukes assassination Austria must take some of the blame for the onset of war. Austria would not act unless she was sure of the support of Germany. The reason for Germanys part in the outbreak of war was due to a telegram sent to Franz Joseph guaranteeing Austria Germany?s support in the event of a war. This has become known as the ?Blank Cheque. Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia, which contained unrealistic terms. However Serbia managed to meet all terms except one which would have allowed Austrian army to occupy Serbian territory. At this stage Austria could have prevented war but she chose not to. July 28th, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia and as a result of the alliance system Europe goes to war. With Britain being the last to enter on the war on August 5th, 1914.

By 1914 the system of diplomacy in Europe had broken down. Statesmen were thinking of war as a preventative measure rather than a last resort. Lloyd George remarked that Europe ?stumbled and staggered into war? (Reasons for War 3). World War 1 was a result of aggression and tension in Europe; all of Europe played a part in the outbreak of war not just Germany. World War 1 had many complex causes rather than one main one.

Delap, S. The Reasons for War. Dublin: The Institute, 1996.

Gardner, D. The Origins of War. New York: YTM Archive, 1998.

MacDonald, L. 1914. London: Michael Joseph, 1987.

Tierney, M. Europe Since 1870. Dublin: CJ Fallon, 1993.

Terraine, J. The First World War 1914-18. London: Secker & Warburg, 1965.

Terraine, J. White Heat. London: Lee Cooper, 1992.

Wohl, R. The Generation of 1914. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980.

Delap, S. The Reasons for War. Dublin: The Institute, 1996.

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