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Mla Style Citation Example In Essay Citations

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Mla style citation example in essay citations

Research Process Competencies 3. In-Text Citations. Directions, Examples, & Evaluation
URL of this web page: http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/wr123/intextcitation2010.htm
See WR 123 Course Plan for relevant deadlines.

Preparation for In-Text Citations assignment:
  • EVERYBODY. Correct/update/revise your Annotated Working Bibliography - see handout:
    http://web.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/wr123/AnnotatedWorkingBibliography.htm
    NOTE WELL: You will not be able to construct correct In-Text Citations in APA or MLA style until after you have first correctly formatted bibliographical entries for all your sources in your Annotated Working Bibliography in your approved documentation style (i.e. APA or MLA). If you have questions or problems with this task, please consult Cora as soon as possible to help you do so.
  • Review the BR chapter for your approved documentation style:
    • APA users :BR Ch. 21 "Using APA Style," especially 21a "How do I cite sources within the text of my document?" (pp. 325-328); andreview examples of source citations in "APA-style Research Essay" (344-352)
    • MLA users.BR Ch. 20 "Using MLA Style," especially 20a "How do I cite sources within the text of my document?" (pp. 294-297); andreview examples of source citations in "MLA-style Research Essay" (pp. 317-322)
  • EVERYBODY. Read/Review in our BR textbook:
    --Ch. 6b: "Quote Directly" (pp. 78-80), "Paraphrase" (pp. 80-83), "Summarize" (pp. 83-85);
    --Ch. 15 "Integrating Sources" (pp. 222ff), esp. 15b on integrating quotations. 15c on integrating paraphrases. and 15d on integrating summaries;
    --Ch. 7 "Avoiding Plagiarism"
  • EVERYBODY. R eview �What Is Plagiarism?� & Practice Plagiarism Quiz (paper handouts, also available in our Blackboard course under "Avoiding Plagiarism")
    --Also please review the recommended reading Academic Dishonesty (COCC Student Rights and Responsibilities) and do the recommended Self-Test � Recognizing and Avoiding Plagiarism: Exercises (Cornell Univ.) - external links to which are available in our Bb course under "Avoiding Plagiarism."
General Directions for In-Text Citations assignment:
  • Provide examples drawn from actual sources documented in your current (corrected/revised/updated) Annotated Working Bibliography of each of the 7 types of in-text citations required:
1. Summary;
2. Paraphrase;
3. Short Direct Quotation;
4. Long "Block" Quotation;
5. Indirect Citation (Source Cited in Another Source);
6. Quotation or Paraphrase from a source with Two or more authors
7. Citation from a Source with No Author ("Unsigned") or by a Group Author
  • To provide all the types of in-text citations required by this assignment, it is expected that you will be drawing upon at least two but probably more of the sources documented in your current updated/revised Annotated Working Bibliography .
  • Your In-Text Citations must be correctly formatted in your approved documentation style (i.e. APA or MLA) and clearly match-able to corresponding full bibliographical entries for the same sources provided in your Annotated Working Bibliography .
  • NOTE WELL: Both preliminary and final drafts of your In-Text Citations must be accompanied by a current, correct updated/revised version of your Annotated Working Bibliography --without which your workshop reviewers and Cora cannot determine whether your In-Text Citations work!
  • NUMBER, LABEL and DOUBLE SPACE the final draft of your In-Text Citations!
  • In-Text Citation assignment Requirements
    & Examples in both APA and MLA styles:

    1. SUMMARY.Write a sentence summarizing - in your own words - a main idea (e.g. thesis) of one your sources and integrating a correct in-text citation of the source summarized: in-text source citation must be correctly formatted following your approved documentation style and must be clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    1.A. APA-Style SUMMARY In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in your summary sentence:

    Devlin (1999) explains the benefits of combining the social sciences and mathematics to chart human behavior.
    Smith (n.d.) analyzes plausible reasons why attempts to return sign language-using apes to the wild have not been successful.
    Inman and George (2004) argue that awareness of political issues enters the worldview of children at a very young age.

    If you do not identify the source in your summary sentence:

    One study has advanced the benefits of combining the social sciences and mathematics to chart human behavior (Devlin, 1999).
    Attempts to return sign-language-using apes to the wild have had mixed results (Smith, n.d.).
    Although studies have shown that the behavior of peers and family members affects the development of eating disorders in children, no clear patterns have been established (Phares, Steinberg, & Thompson, 2005).

    1.B. MLA-Style SUMMARY In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in your summary sentence:

    Nancy Morris has examined the roles of women in Thomas Hardy's novels.
    Wayne E. Franits explains the domestic roles that wives and husbands were commonly expected to fulfill in seventeenth-century Dutch society.
    In his essay "Poetic Principle," Edgar Allan Poe announced the doctrines on which he based his own creative writing and literary criticism.

    If you do not identify the source in your summary sentence:

    One critic has examined the roles of women in Thomas Hardy's novels (Morris).
    Seventeenth-century Dutch wives and husbands had clearly defined roles to fulfill in their marriages (Franits).

    2. PARAPHASE.Write a sentence paraphrasing - in your own words - one or two specific sentences contained in one your sources (preferably a *paginated* print source), and integrating a correct in-text citation of the source paraphrased; for a paginated source, you must include page number on which the paraphrased sentence/s can be found in this source. In-text source citation must be correctly formatted following your approved documentation style and clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    * PAGINATED* source = print source having fixed /stable page numbers, OR a .pdf document which reproduces a scanned (photo)copy of a print source with fixed /stable page numbers.
    UNPAGINATED source does not have fixed page numbers: e.g. a personal communication or inteview, a web page or .htm/.html document without stable/fixed page numbers, "Field Sources" (e.g. a lecture) or "Media Sources" (e.g. a film, television program, DVD).

    2.A. APA-Style PARAPHRASE In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in your paraphrase :

    Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) have acknowledged that Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (p. 567).
    Kirby (2004) found that the policy makers for the Caswell County local government were not receptive to the needs of the African American men in her study (p. 4).

    If you do not identify the source in your paraphrase:

    Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh, 1990, p. 567).
    Policy makers for the Caswell County local government were not receptive to the needs of African American men in one study (Kirby, 2004, p. 4).

    2.B. MLA-Style PARAPHRASE In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in your paraphrase:

    First-year students on financial aid at Brown University benefit from new policies adopted by BUOFA (Brown University Office of Financial Aid): these students are not expected to work during the first year of their financial aid package (12) and are awarded a one-time grant to help compensate for the income lost by not working during this first year (14).
    Herbert Norfleet maintains that the use of video games by children improves their hand and eye coordination (45).

    If you do not identify the source in your paraphrase:

    First-year students awarded financial aid packages by Brown University Office of Financial Aid are given one-time grants so that they do not have to work during their first year of study (BUOFA 14, 12).
    Use of video games can improve children's hand-eye coordination, according to one researcher (Norfleet 45).

    3. SHORT DIRECT QUOTATION (less than 5 lines regular formatted text or fewer than 40 words): Write a sentence containing a short direct quotation enclosed in quotation marks, fromone of yoursources (preferably a *paginated* source), and integrating a correct in-text citation of the source quoted; for a paginated source, you must include page number on which the quoted passage can be found in this source. In-text source citation must be correctly formatted following your approved documentation style and clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    * PAGINATED* source = print source having fixed /stable page numbers, OR a .pdf document which reproduces a scanned (photo)copy of a print source with fixed /stable page numbers.

    UNPAGINATED source does not have fixed page numbers: e.g. a personal communication or inteview, a web page or .htm/.html document without stable/fixed page numbers, "Field Sources" (e.g. a lecture) or "Media Sources" (e.g. a film, television program, DVD).

    3.A. APA-Style SHORT QUOTATION In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in your short quotation:

    Ann Gill (2001) has argued, "Education reform is the best solution for fixing our public schools" (p. 22).
    According to Jones and Miller (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
    Hart (1996) notes that some primatologists became convinced that their "apes had learned Language, with a capital L " (p. 109).

    Informal Personal Communication:

    "Students willing to ask questions and seek extra help when they are confused, often do better in their writing courses," reported Writing 123 instructor Cora Agatucci (personal communication, October 5, 2004).

    Full-text article in .html format from Subscription-Only electronic database source without fixed page numbers but with chapter/section headings that can be clearly identified and/or paragraphs that can be clearly counted:

    Marais (2000) explains that, because of a preoccupation with reflecting "substantive changes in history. forms of social realism have usually be favored by politically engaged fiction writers in the South African context" (par. 1).

    If you do not identify the source in your short quotation:

    "Education is the best solution for fixing our public schools" (Gill, 2001, p. 22).
    "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (Jones & Miller, 1998, p. 199).
    Some primatologists "wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L " (Hart, 1996, p. 109).

    3.B. MLA-Style SHORT QUOTATION I n-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in yourshort quotation:

    Ann Gill argues, "Education reform is the best solution for fixing our public schools" (22).
    "The mental gymnastics of video games and the competition with fellow players," according to Norfleet, "are important to young children and their physical, social, and mental development" (45).
    Redelmeier and Tibshirani have found that "the risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (453).

    If you do not identify the source in your short quotation:

    "Education is the best solution for fixing our public schools" (Gill 22).
    "The mental gymnastics of video games and the competition with fellow players are important to young children and their physical, social, and mental development" (Norfleet 45).
    Researchers have found that "the risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (Redelmeier and Tibshirani 453).

    World Wide Web source without fixed page numbers and no countable embedded paragraphs:

    "The California Highway Patrol opposes restrictions on the use of cell phones while driving, claiming that distracted drivers can already be prosecuted" (Jacobs).

    Videotape or Feature Film:

    In the film Keita: Heritage of the Griot. Djeliba, the great griot, often recites wisdom proverbs, such as "you can�t run and scratch your foot at the same time."

    Extra Credit Option: Use ellipsis points. and brackets [ ]correctly
    in your short and/or long direct quotation example/s.

    4. LONG "BLOCK" QUOTATION (5 + lines of regular formatted text, or more than 40 words): Write a sentence or phrase to introduce a long " block " quotation, properly formatted (i.e. blocked = indented ) fromone of your sources, and integrating a correct in-text citation of the source quoted, including page number if the source is paginated: in-text source citation must be correctly formatted follow ing your approved documentation style and clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    4.A. APA-Style LONG "BLOCK" QUOTATION I n-Text Citation EXAMPLES:
    NOTE: Indent the long quotation 5 spaces or 1/2 inch from the left margin.

    When asked what parents and coaches could do to help girl athletes remain healthy and not use drugs or overwork themselves, Juan Orozco (2004) offered the following advice:

    An athlete should be happy in her activity of choice, and her parents should encourage her
    desires to do well. Parents should be involved in her life and let her know that her efforts
    are valued highly, but they also need to be on the lookout for danger signs�such as unusual
    weight loss or moodiness. As a coach, I need to know the personalities of my players and
    get them to trust me, not only as their coach but as their friend�someone they can talk to
    if they have a problem. (Personal communication, September 22, 2004)

    While a few online romances have happy endings, Miller (1996) explains that most do not:

    From my research, only about one in four online relationships turns out happy. People get
    into this bodice-ripping mentality in the beginning [of online relationships]. But after you've
    had "sex" with someone in the virtual way, there's a real desire to actually be intimate.
    When the two do meet, the relationship can't handle reality. Either the affair ends or it
    destroys their marriages. (p. 39)

    If you do not identify the source in introduction to the long "block" quotation:

    While a few online romances have happy endings, one researcher observes that most do not:

    From my research, only about one in four online relationships turns out happy. People get
    into this bodice-ripping mentality in the beginning [of online relationships]. But after you've
    had "sex" with someone in the virtual way, there's a real desire to actually be intimate.
    When the two do meet, the relationship can't handle reality. Either the affair ends or it
    destroys their marriages. (Miller, 1996, p. 39)

    4.B. MLA-Style LONG "BLOCK" QUOTATION In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    Yet throughout his soliloquy Hamlet seems to be acting, and Shakespearian scholar Harold Bloom stresses that idea:
    So histrionic is all of Hamlet that we need to develop our auditory consciousness
    to a new pitch, if we catch the prince's accent here. Where all is theatricality,
    our grounds for judgment must shift. Hamlet's hyperboles mock theater itself,
    in "drown the stage with tears." The soliloquy becomes a hyperparody of
    soliloquy. (30).

    While a few online romances have happy endings, Miller explains that most do not:

    From my research, only about one in four online relationships turns out happy.
    People get into this bodice-ripping mentality in the beginning [of online
    relationships]. But after you've had "sex" with someone in the virtual way,
    there's a real desire to actually be intimate. When the two do meet, the
    relationship can't handle reality. Either the affair ends or it destroys their
    marriages. (39)

    If you do not identify the source in introduction to the long "block" quotation:

    While a few online romances have happy endings, most do not:

    From my research, only about one in four online relationships turns out happy.
    People get into this bodice-ripping mentality in the beginning [of online
    relationships]. But after you've had "sex" with someone in the virtual way,
    there's a real desire to actually be intimate. When the two do meet,
    the relationship can't handle reality. Either the affair ends or it destroys
    their marriages. (Miller 39)

    5. INDIRECT CITATION: SOURCE QUOTED/CITED IN ANOTHER SOURCE.
    This type of in-text citation is best explained through examples (see below). Again in-text source citation must be correctly formatted follow ing your approved documentation style and clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    5.A. APA-Style INDIRECT CITATION In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    Massie and Rosenthal (2002) studied home movies of children diagnosed with autism, but could reach no conclusions because the dating and quality of the videotapes were uncertain (as cited in Osterling & Dawson, 2003, p. 248).
    Beyond middle school, students begin to resent their parents' interference in school activities. Greenberg (2005) observes, "The interventions can be construed by the adolescent as negative, overburdening and interfering with the child's ability to care for himself" (as cited in Peterson, 2006, p. 9A).
    x

    5.B. MLA-Style INDIRECT CITATION In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    If you identify the source in yourshort quotation:

    Massie and Rosenthal studied home movies of children diagnosed with autism, but could reach no conclusions because the dating and quality of the videotapes were uncertain (qtd. in Osterling and
    Dawson 248).
    Beyond middle school, students begin to resent their parents' interference in school activities. Martin Greenberg observes, "The interventions can be construed by the adolescent as negative, overburdening and interfering with the child's ability to care for himself" (qtd. in Peterson 9A).
    x

    6. QUOTATION or PARAPHRASE from a source with TWO or more Authors

    6.A. APA-Style QUOTATION or PARAPHRASE from a source with TWO or more Authors In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) have acknowledged that Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (p. 567).

    Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh, 1990, p. 567).

    Three to Five Authors � list all the authors the first time you cite the source in-text:
    Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, and Harlow (1993) point out that blah, blah blah (p. 67).
    One group of researchers points out that blah blah blah (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993, p. 67).

    The second and any subsequent times you cite the source in-text, give only the first author�s last name followed by �et al.� (= Latin abbreviation for �and others�):

    Furthermore, Kernis et al. (1993) maintain that blah, blah blah (p. 68).
    x

    6.B. MLA-Style or PARAPHRASE from a source with TWO or more Authors In-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    Redelmeier and Tibshirani have found that "the risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (453).

    Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).

    Researchers have found that "the risk of a collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (Redelmeier and Tibshirani 453).

    Some opponents argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the U.S. (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).
    x

    7. CITATION FROM A SOURCE WITH NO AUTHOR ["UNSIGNED"] OR BY A GROUP AUTHOR.Write a sentence containing a citation (can be a summary, paraphrase or quotation) from a source with no author or from a source by a group or corporate author. Again in-text source citation must be correctly formatted follow ing your approved documentation style and clearly match-able to the first word/s of the corresponding full bibliographical entry for that source in your accompanying Annotated Working Bibliography.

    7.A. APA-StyleCITATION FROM A SOURCE WITH NO AUTHOR or by a GROUP AuthorIn-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    According to Chimps (1999), a BBC television program, chimpanzees at sites in West Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda exhibit culture-specific patterns of behavior when grooming one another.

    Chimpanzees at sites in West Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda exhibit culture-specific patterns of behavior when grooming each other (Chimps. 1999).

    According to the American Psychological Association (2010), �any nonroutine information that is important for identification and retrieval� of a source can be added enclosed in brackets after giving the title of the source in a bibliographical entry (p. 203).

    In creating APA-style References bibliographical entries, students are encouraged to add ��any nonroutine information that is important for identification and retrieval� of a source enclosed in brackets after giving the title of the source (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 203).
    x

    7.B. MLA-StyleCITATION FROM A SOURCE WITH NO AUTHORor by a GROUP AuthorIn-Text Citation EXAMPLES:

    �Fad Diets� warns that any diet that avoids carbohydrates will also deprive the body of some �essential sugars.�
    When constructing a Works Cited entry for a source by more than three authors, the Modern Language Association advises that students �may name only the first [author] and add et al. (�and others�), or. give all the [authors�] names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page� (155).
    One web source warns that any diet that avoids carbohydrates will also deprive the body of some �essential sugars� ("Fad Diets").
    As of 2001, at least three hundred towns and municipalities had considered legislation regulating use of cell phones while driving ("Lawmakers" 2).
    When constructing a Works Cited entry for a source by more than three authors, students �may name only the first [author] and add et al. (�and others�), or. give all the [authors�] names in full in the order in which they appear on the title page� (Modern Language Association 155).

    In-Text Citations - Evaluation

    In-Text Citations correctly formatted in approved (i.e. APA or MLA) documentation style - 20 pts. possible

    Grade/Score:_____________________
    ___LATE submission: 1/2 grade LATE penalty applied & NO revision option allowed

    ___"Final" draft submitted on time so Revision Option is allowed.

    _____In-Text Citation 1 Summary: Your example is a summary, is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 2 Paraphrase: Your example is a paraphrase, is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 3 Short Direct Quotation: Your example is a short direct quotation enclosed in quotation marks, is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 4 Long "Block" Quotation: Your example is a long quotation and correctly blocked (indented), is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 5 Indirect Citation (Source Cited in Another Source): Your example is an indirect citation (quotation, paraphrase or summary) of a source that you have NOT reviewed yourself, cited in another source that you HAVE reviewed yourself and included in your Annotated Working Bibliography; your example is correctly attributed in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, including information on the source you HAVE reviewed (from which you took the indirect citation) and matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 6 Quotation or Paraphrase from a source with Two or more authors is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.
    _____In-Text Citation 7 Citation from a Source with No Author ("Unsigned") or by a Group Author: Your example is a citation (quotation, paraphrase, or summary) from a source with no author ("unsigned") or by a Group Author, is correctly cited in your approved (APA or MLA) documentation style, and is matchable to a bibliographical entry in your Annotated Working Bibliography.

    Relevant WR 123 Learning Outcomes (as stated in WR 123 Syllabus ) are demonstrated:

    Learning Outcome 3: Develop a research system that avoids plagiarism and fairly represents sources by quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing with appropriate documentation.
    Learning Outcome 6. Develop awareness of differing citation and bibliographic systems from various academic disciplines and develop competence in one system [e.g. APA or MLA] most appropriate for a specific research-based academic paper.

    Score - Percentage - Grade Conversion Scale for Evaluated Assignment worth 20 pts. possible

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