How To List Sources For A Research Paper - Essay for you

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How To List Sources For A Research Paper

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How to list sources for a research paper

How to list sources for a research paper

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    How to Write a Proposal for a Research Paper

    Tips on how to write proposals for research papers

    Most research projects which offer you the liberty to choose the topic also require a research proposal which will have to be approved by the instructor. The trouble is that even good topics can get rejected if the proposal is not good enough. If you are not sure of how to write a proposal for a research paper impressively, it would be better to first find out how to go about it and then start writing it.

    The objective of a research proposal

    Before getting into the details of how to write proposals for research papers. let us take a look at what the objective of a research proposal is. It serves many purposes and is useful to the teachers as well as the students. The proposal helps the instructors to identify topics which are not suitable for the project at an early stage and direct the students the right way. That way, they would be able to save the time which would otherwise be wasted reading about topics which are inappropriate for the project. It also gives them an idea of what to expect from the submissions.

    Research proposals are equally useful for students also. First of all, it helps them gather their thoughts and ideas towards the paper. And while putting it into a formal format, they would be able to judge their choice better. At the stage of preparing the proposal, they would be able to change their topic, if they find any problem with it. Another advantage of working on an approved proposal is that there would be no risk of the project getting disqualified or rejected.

    The important elements of a research proposal

    Some instructors specify the points which must be included in the proposal. In such cases, you will be able to put it together by following the instructions, even if you do not know how to prepare a proposal for a research paper. But not every project comes with specifications regarding the proposal format. When there are no specifications, you would be expected to follow the commonly used format for research proposals which would include:

    1. A description of the topic – Give the necessary background information on the topic. Explain the scope of the topic and the nature of research.

    2. The thesis statement – State the thesis with confidence but without imposing authority as you are yet to gather evidence towards it.

    3. Your interest in the project – Explain why you chose the topic and how your skills would complement the research on that particular topic.

    4. The methodology – Describe the methodology and research tools you wish to use for research on the topic.

    5. The sources – List out the sources which you have shortlisted for the research. Explain why you consider them the best ones for your project.

    6. The time span – Mention how much time you expect the research procedure to take.

    Impressive research proposals

    An impressive research proposal can make even the most boring topics look interesting and a poorly prepared one can make even the best of topics look dull and boring. Hence, all students must have an idea of how to write proposals for research papers. If you need any further assistance with your research proposal or your research paper itself, let us know. We offer research paper help to students of all subjects and levels. You may go through the research paper examples listed on our website to get an idea of the skills of our writers. We also offer custom research paper writing service to students.

    Five Bad Sources for Your Research Project

    5 Bad Research Sources

    By Grace Fleming. Homework & Study Tips Expert

    Updated April 14, 2016.

    In conducting homework research. you are basically conducting a search for facts: little tidbits of truth that you will assemble and arrange in an organized fashion to make an original point or claim. Your first responsibility as a researcher is to understand the difference between fact and fiction—and also the difference between fact and opinion .

    Here are some common places to find opinions and works of fiction that can be disguised as facts.

    Continue Reading Below

    As you know, anybody can publish a blog on the Internet. This poses an obvious problem with using a blog as a research source, as there is no way to know the credentials of many bloggers or to get an understanding of the writer’s level of expertise.

    Many people create blogs to give themselves a forum to express their views and opinions. And many of these people consult really shaky sources to form their beliefs. You could use a blog for a quote, but never use a blog as a serious source of facts for a research paper!

    2. Personal Web Sites

    A web page is much like a blog when it comes to being an unreliable research source. Web pages are created by the public, so you have to be very careful when choosing them as sources. It's sometimes difficult to determine which web sites are created by experts and professionals on a given topic.

    If you think about it, using information from a personal web page is just like stopping a perfect stranger on the street and collecting information from him or her. Not very reliable!

    Continue Reading Below

    3. Wiki Sites

    Wiki web sites can be very informative, but they can also be untrustworthy. Wiki sites allow groups of people to add and edit the information contained on the pages. You can imagine how a wiki source could contain unreliable information!

    The question that always arises when it comes to homework and research is whether it’s OK to use Wikipedia as a source of information. Wikipedia is a fantastic site with a lot of great information, and this site is a possible exception to the rule. Your teacher can tell you for certain if you can use this source. One thing is for certain: At a very minimum, Wikipedia offers a reliable overview of a topic to give you a strong foundation to start with. It also provides a list of resources where you can continue your own research.

    Don’t laugh. Teachers, librarians, and college professors will all tell you that students often believe things the they’ve seen in movies. Whatever you do, don’t use a movie as a research source! Movies about historical events can contain kernels of truth, but they are created for entertainment, not for educational purposes.

    5. Historical Novels

    Students also believe that historical novels are trustworthy, because they state that they are “based on facts.” There is a difference between a factual work and a work that is based on facts!

    A novel that is based on a single fact can still contain ninety-nine percent fiction! Never use a historical novel as a history resource.

    How to List Sources in a Research Paper

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    The standard bibliography resource for students from high school to graduate school has been Kate Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, which is an adaptation of the Chicago Style Manual. When listing sources in a bibliography at the end of a research paper, precision and accuracy are important. Keep a copy of your sources close by to refer to as you type your citations.

    Listing Books: Single Author and Multiple Authors

    Type the author's surname, then a comma followed by his or her given name. End with a period.

    Type the title of the book, capitalizing all major words and ending with a period. Highlight the book title and turn it into italic text.

    Type the name of the city where the book was published, followed by a colon.

    Type the publisher's name, a comma, and the year of publication. End with a period.

    Compare to this example: Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. New York: HarperOne, 2005.

    Entering two authors requires an “and” between the first and second authors' names. The second author’s name, however, is written given name, middle initial if applicable, then surname. End with a period.

    Entering more than two authors in your source list follows the same pattern with a comma between each author’s name.

    Listing a Magazine or Journal Article

    Enter the author’s surname followed by a comma, then the given name followed by a period.

    Enter the title of the article, capitalizing all major words, with a period at the end. Place quotation marks around the title, including the period.

    Enter the name of the magazine in italic text, followed by a comma.

    Enter the date in month, day, year format followed by a period. Compare to this example: Oberg, James. "How We'll Probe the Solar System." Astronomy, January 2011.

    When creating a journal entry, follow the same pattern except that after the journal's name, you type the volume and issue number, the year in parentheses, a colon, the specific page numbers you're referring to and then a period. Compare to this example: Meers, M. B. "Maximum Bite Force and Prey Size of Tyrannosaurus Rex and their Relationships to the Inference of Feeding Behavior." Historical Biology: A Journal of Paleobiology 16 no. 1 (2003): 1-12.

    Listing a Website

    Type the author’s surname, a comma, his or her given name, then a period.

    Enter the title of the web page followed by a period, all enclosed in quotation marks. The first letter of each major word in the title is capitalized.

    Enter the title of the website followed by a period. The first letter of each major word in the title is capitalized.

    Type the exact URL. It must include the "http://" element.

    Type in the word “accessed” followed by the date in month, day, year format, all within parentheses. Compare to this example: Newman, William L. "Radiometric Time Scale." Geologic Time. (accessed March 23, 2011).

    • Print out "Turabian Quick Guide" and refer to it as needed.
    • Get a friend to do a final edit of the bibliography as it is often difficult to see your own mistakes.
    • Make sure that you are using the correct style guide required by your Academic Department. While the Turabian is the most commonly used style guide at colleges and universities, a specific department may require a different style or provide their own guide that you are supposed to follow.
    • "A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations"; Kate Turabian; 2007
    • "The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition"; University of Chicago Press Staff; 2010
    • A Manual for Writers: Turabian Quick Guide
    About the Author

    Bill Atkinson, a retired English and computer science teacher, has been a professional writer since 2011. He has written numerous learning guides for students in Visual Basic and Web design and has developed several Web sites on the Cariboo Gold Rush and the Cottonwood Roadhouse in British Columbia. Bill holds a Master of Education in educational psychology.

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    Writing a Research Paper

    Ten Steps to a Good Research Paper

    To write a good research paper, you must be specific about your topic, know what you want to say, and say it effectively. Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper.

    • Step 1. Choose Your Topic. When choosing a topic, choose one in which you are interested, and for which there is enough information. If your topic is too broad, you will have difficulty completing your paper. "The Effects of Pollution" is too broad because there are so many effects of pollution. "The Effects of Pollution on Geese in the Northeast Section of Duluth, Minnesota" is too narrow. You are not likely to find much information that is this specific. "The Effects of Pollution in Yosemite National Park" is just about right as a topic.
    • Step 2. Locate Information. Use information from a variety of reference sources. These sources include encyclopedias, almanacs, scholarly journals, books, magazines, and newspapers. Find these sources in print form, on CD-ROMS, and on the Internet.
    • Step 3. Prepare Bibliography Cards. Prepare bibliography cards to document the sources of information you use when writing your paper. Your library will have style manuals to illustrate how to prepare bibliography cards for various sources of information.
    • Step 4. Prepare Note Cards. Use note cards to record notes from each source you use when writing your paper. Number your note cards to keep track of them.
    • Step 5. Prepare an Outline. Write an outline for your paper by organizing your notes from the note cards into topics, subtopics, details, and subdetails. Use an organization such as: I. (topic) A. (subtopic) 1. (detail) a. (subdetail)
    • Step 6. Write A Rough Draft. Use your note cards and outline to write a rough draft of your paper. As you write your draft, use numbered footnotes to credit sources from which you take quotations or major ideas.
    • Step 7. Revise Your Rough Draft. Make any changes needed to be sure your ideas are clearly expressed and your writing has accurate spelling and grammar.
    • Step 8. Prepare Your Bibliography. At the end of your paper, provide a list of all the sources you used to gather information for the paper. Your bibliography cards will provide this information. List your sources in alphabetical order by the first word on each of your bibliography cards.
    • Step 9. Prepare a Title Page and Table of Contents. The title page is the first page of the paper. It should include the title of your paper, your name, and the date on which the paper is due. The table of contents is the second page. It should list the main topics, important subtopics, and the page on which each is introduced in your paper.
    • Step 10. Final Checklist. Before handing in your paper, be sure you can answer "Yes" to each of the following questions.
      • Did I include a title page?
      • Did I include a table of contents?
      • Did I number all pages correctly?
      • Did I provide footnotes for quotations and major sources of information?
      • Did I include a bibliography?
      • Did I keep a second copy for my files?

    Following these ten steps will help you write a good research paper.

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