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MLA Style Sheet for Term Paper Citations - Humanities - Social Sciences - University Library - UC Davis

UC DAVIS. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Humanities & Social Sciences
MLA Style Sheet for Term Paper Citations

The Modern Language Association (MLA) provides citation guidelines for preparing research papers and scholarly manuscripts. These guidelines include parenthetical citation within a written work and a Works Cited page, both of which allow writers to accurately quote and paraphrase sources. MLA style is used in a range of disciplines, primarily in the humanities. Other prominent styles include those from the American Psychological Association (APA) and the University of Chicago. Some disciplines may use a modified or combined style, such as the American Anthropological Association .

Below are some examples of MLA-style citation entries for quick reference. For more detailed examples and guidelines, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Scholars preparing manuscripts for publication will also want to use the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing .

Papers written using MLA Style are ususally double-spaced, including the Works Cited Page.

*On a Works Cited page, always indent five spaces for each line after the first one:

On This Page

NO AUTHOR
A Handbook of Korea. 6th ed. Seoul International Pub. House, 1987.

ONE AUTHOR
Morrison, Toni. Sula. New York: Knopf, 1974.

TWO AUTHORS
Hyde, Margaret O. and Elizabeth Held Forsyth. Suicide: The Hidden Epidemic. Rev. ed. New York: Watts, 1986.

MORE THAN TWO AUTHORS
Quirk, Randolph, et. Al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.

EDITOR
Perkins, Kathy A. ed. Black Female Playwrights: An Anthology of Plays Before 1950. Bloomington: Indiana U, 1989.

AUTHOR AND EDITOR
Shakespeare, William. The Comedy of Errors. Ed. By T.S. Dorsch. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988.

ESSAY/CHAPTER IN A BOOK
Klawans, Stuart. "Colorization: Rose-Tinted Spectacles." Seeing Through Movies. Ed. Mark C. Miller. New York: Pantheon, 1990. 150-185.

Magazines and Newspapers

MAGAZINE ARTICLE SIGNED
Theroux, Paul. "China Passage by Rail." National Geographic March 1988: 296-329.

MAGAZINE ARTICLE UNSIGNED
"Time for Doubt." Time 26 Nov. 1990: 30-34.

JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGING
Brook, Dan W. "The Value of Prolonging Human Life." Philosophical Studies 50 (1986): 401-26.

JOURNAL THAT PAGES EACH ISSUE SEPARATELY
Baum, Rosalie Murphy. "Alcoholism and Family Abuse in Maggie and The Bluest Eye. " Mosaic 19.3 (1986): 91-105.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLE UNSIGNED
"The Elected Aristocracy: 12 is Enough." Wall Street Journal 6 Nov. 1990, sec. A: 22.

BOOK REVIEW
Hall, Lucia K.B. Rev. of God and the New Physics. by Paul Davies. Humanist Nov.-Dec. 1986: 39.

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES
Sapir, Edward. "Communication." Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1930.

Electronic Resources

ONLINE BOOK
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Boston, 1845. 1 Aug. 1999
http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm

ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH PAGE NUMBERS
Washington, Gerald R. "The Writing Crisis in Urban Schools: A Culturally Different Hypothesis." Journal of Advanced Composition 16.3 (1996). 12 Aug. 1999
http://www.cas.usf.edu/JAC/163.html

ARTICLE TEXT FROM SUBSCRIPTION DATABASE SERVICE
Pursell, Chris. "Xena Ratings Princess." Electronic Media 16 Jul. 2001: 6. ABI/INFORM Global. Proquest. University of California, Davis Library. 4 Mar. 1999
http://proquest.umi.com/

ORGANIZATION WEB SITE
Romance Languages and Literatures Page. 1 Jan. 1997. Dept. of Romance Languages and Literatures, U. of Chicago. 8 July 1998
http://humanities.uchicago.edu/romance/

Interviews

INTERVIEW IN PERSON
Basso, Lilliam. Personal Interview. 4 Mar. 1991.

INTERVIEW IN PRINT
Ellison, Ralph. Interview. "Invisible Man." With Allen McPherson. Atlantic Dec. 1970: 45-60. 1990.

TELEVISION AND RADIO
"Belly of the Beast." 48 Hours. Host Dan Rather. Narr. Peter Van Sant. CBS. 10 Aug. 1999.

FILM/VIDEO RECORDING
It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. DVD. Republic, 2001.

Parenthetical References In the Research Paper

The Modern Language Association uses parenthetical references instead of footnotes or endnotes in the body of the research paper to acknowledge the use of borrowed material. These references point to the Works Cited page (see examples of entries above) at the end to fully document this material with necessary author, title, and publishing information.

Placement and Punctuation Guidelines
  1. Keep the parenthetical references as brief as possible. Do this by inserting the author's last name and a page number in parentheses after the statement you are documenting:
    "A large percentage of the suicides in this category are centered in the New York City area" (Hyde 126).
  2. If you include the author's name in a sentence, you need only put the page number of the reference in the parentheses:
    Hyde notes that "a large percentage of the suicides in this category are centered in the New York City area" (126).
  3. If you are citing an entire work rather than a specific passage or section, omit any parenthetical reference and give the author's last name in your sentence:
    Throughout her book, Hyde argues that suicide among the young constitutes a national epidemic.
Examples of Parenthetical References
  1. A work by an author of two or more works you are using
    Use last name, comma, short title and relevant page numbers:
    (Grossman, Aesthetics 5)
  2. A work by an author with the same last name as another author in your list of Works Cited
    Supply first name:
    (James Brown 317)
  3. A work by more than one author
    Two authors:
    (Hyde and Forsyth 47)

Three or more authors:
(Quirk et al 96)

  • A multivolume work
    Indicate volume used:
    ( Laszlo 2: 787)
  • A work with no author
    Use shortened version of title or whole title if it is short. If you shorten the title, begin with the word by which the source is alphabetized in the list of Works Cited:
    (Americana 8: 63)
  • Corporate author or government agency
    You may include author and title, but it is often best to use information as part of a sentence since the citation may be long:
    ( IBM Annual Report 1990 6)
  • Literary Works
    Because of differences in editions, use more than the page number to locate the passage cited. After page number, add a semicolon and other appropriate information using abbreviations such as "ch.", "pt.":
    (Conrad 15; ch. 3)
  • More than one work in a single parenthetical reference
    Use normal pattern but separate each citation with a semicolon:
    (Kabotis 214; Perkins 58)
  • For More Information On MLA Style

    Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003. HSSGIS Reference (Protected) LB2369 .G53 2003 Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd ed. New York: MLA, 1998. HSSGIS Reference PN147 .G444 1998 Walker, Janice R. The Columbia Guide to Online Style. New York: Columbia UP, 1998. HSSGIS Reference (Protected) PN171.F56 W35 1998 Online examples of MLA style MLA Style Most Frequently Asked Questions Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Documentation Guidelines (Duke) SLATE Citation Machine

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    MLA Citation Examples: 2011 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Seventh Edition Dorothy Allen, ILS, MacArthur Ninth Grade School, Aldine ISD

    MLA Citation Examples: 2011 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Seventh Edition Dorothy Allen, ILS, MacArthur Ninth Grade School, Aldine ISD. Presentation on theme: "MLA Citation Examples: 2011 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Seventh Edition Dorothy Allen, ILS, MacArthur Ninth Grade School, Aldine ISD."— Presentation transcript:

    1 MLA Citation Examples: 2011 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers Seventh Edition Dorothy Allen, ILS, MacArthur Ninth Grade School, Aldine ISD

    2 Adler, Mike. 1 The World and Climate Change. New York: Random House, Print. Author Title Place of Publication Copyright Date Medium of Publication Book With One Author Publishing Company Special Note: Underline the title if you are writing by hand. Source Number

    3 Bates, David, and Tony Juniper. Endangered Planet. New York: Kingfisher, Print. Authors Title Place of Publication Copyright Date Medium of Publication Book With Two Authors Publishing Company Source number 2

    4 Smith, Jan, ed. Immigration. Chicago: Kerr Publishing, Print. Book With One Editor Editor Title Place of Publication Publishing Company Medium of Publication Copyright Date 3 Source Number

    5 Smith, Jan, and Dan Gale, eds. Identities. Boston: Barnes Publishing, Print. Book With Two Editors Editors Title Place of Publication Publishing Company Medium of Publication Copyright Date 4 Source Number

    6 Burnie, Jerry. “Project Green: The Race for Survival.” Newsweek. 9 June 2008: Print. Periodical (Newspaper or Magazine Article) One Author Author Title of the Article (inside quotations) Title of the Magazine Date of Publication Page NumbersMedium of Publication 5 Source number

    7 Scholarly Journal “Special Notation” When citing a scholarly journal only the year of publication is required; for all other periodicals the day, month, and year, as available.

    8 Gillman, Don. “Climate: Why It Matters.” Climate Change. World Life Federation, 12 Feb Web. 15 May Web Site 6 Author Page Title (inside quotations) Title of Web Site Publisher or Sponsor of the Web Site Date of Publication Medium of Publication Date of Access (the day the site is read by you) Source number

    9 Lyles, John. “Global Warming.” National Geographic 2 June 2007: MAS Edition. Web. 10 Feb Periodical Publication from an On-line Database Author Title of the Article Title of the Periodical Day, Month, Year Publication Title of Database Date of Access Medium of Publication Page numbers Source number 7

    10 Nixon, Richard M. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition. Web. 1 Feb Photograph Image Subject Medium Database Medium of Publication Date of Access 8 Source Number

    11 Tips for Citation Page Spacing-double space between title and first entry Begin at the left margin Double space within and between entries Indent ½ inch the second and all following lines for the entry Punctuation-pay attention Citations are in alpha order Give the medium of publication

    Citation Guide: MLA (7th ed

    Simon Fraser University
    Engaging the World
    Citation Guide: MLA (7th ed. 2009)

    See Citation Guide: MLA (8th ed.): General notes for citation information based on the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers or Research Papers.

    This guide is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. and provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information please consult the print version of the handbook. Graduate students and professional writers might also need to consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd ed. PN 147 G444 2008 .

    • Copies are available at SFU library, call number: LB 2369 G53 2009
    • You might want to buy your own copy at the SFU bookstore with which you can get online access by setting up a personal account.
    • For the best printing results, use the printer-friendlyPDF formatof this guide.

    Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software. If you use bibliographic citation software (e.g. RefWorks or EndNote), you must ensure that information is entered accurately in order for the software to output results properly.

    General Notes on MLA Style
    • The MLA citation style is generally used in the humanities (English, Philosophy, Music etc.).
    • MLA requires that the entire paper be double-spaced. including all the lines in the list of works cited (4.2, 5.3.2).
    • All pages of the paper, including the list of works cited, need to be numbered consecutively and must appear in the top right-hand corner of the page after your last name (4.4, 5.3.2).
    • You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (5.1). You need to cite:
      • to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay
      • to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to find the same sources
    • A citation must appear in two places in your paper:
      • in the body of your paper ("in-text citations")
      • in the list of works cited (at the end of your paper)
    • To introduce other people's ideas in your paper, use the following examples:
      • Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes
      • As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved . etc.
      • The electoral system that was adopted in Germany after the Second World War combined majority decision rule and proportional representation (Wattenberg and Shugart 280).
    • Spelling. Use a standard English language dictionary, such as Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary or Canadian Oxford Dictionary .
    Parenthetical (In-Text) Citations
    • If you directly quote from, summarize or use the ideas or arguments from a book or article, then list the author's last name, followed by a space and the page number without any other punctuation (i.e. no commas) (6.1).
    • If you incorporate the author's name in the text of your paper, only provide the page number in parentheses (6.3).

    Forer states that "corporal punishment was employed as a legally imposed penalty in Colonial America" (142).

  • If a quotation is more than four lines when typed into your paper, begin the quotation double-spaced on a new line that is indented by 2.5cm (1 inch). The quotation should be double-spaced. Do not use quotation marks. Also note that the period is placed before the parenthetical citation (3.7.2). For example:
  • At the conclusion of My Side of the Mountain. Sam realized how much he had missed his family:

    Then I jumped in the air and laughed for joy. I recognized my four year-old brother's pleasure song. The family! Dad had brought the family! Every one of them. I ran, twisting, and turning through the trees like a Cooper's hawk, and occasionally riding a free fifty feet downhill on an aspen sapling. Dad gave me a resounding slap, and Mother hugged me until she cried. I led them proudly up the mountain. (George 175)

    • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. Sometimes the source will have paragraph numbers that you can use for your parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation "par." for a single paragraph or "pars." for multiple paragraphs. Don't count paragraphs yourself if they are not indicated on the document (6.4.2).

    Women talked of their aspirations relating to their clothes and of attempts to create images, which were perceived as successful. (Martin par. 20)

    If there are no page or paragraph numbers, the MLA guide recommends that you incorporate the name of the author in the text of your paper. (e.g. Mitchell argues that there is a link between soda consumption and obesity ). You may indicate in your paper an approximate location of the cited passage (e.g. In the final third of his article, Mitchell argues there is a link between soda consumption and obesity ) (6.4.1-2).

  • If you cite multiple works by the same author, place a comma after the author's last name in the parenthetical (in-text) citation and add the title (in full or a shortened version if it is long) and the relevant page reference, e.g. (Foucault, History of Madness 125) (6.4.6).
  • Works Cited
    • At the end of your paper, you will list all your sources on a separate page entitled Works Cited (5.3.2).
    • The works cited list is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. If there is no author, use the title of the source (5.3.3).
    • The works cited list is double-spaced throughout, both between and within entries. If a citation is more than one line, the second line is indented by 1.25 cm (0.5 inches) (5.3.2).
    • Use the format of the author's name as it appears on the title page of a work (e.g. "Mooney, Jayne," or "Danto, Arthur C.," or "Gibaldi, M. C.") (5.5.2).
    • The publisher's name can be shortened (e.g. "Allen," instead of "Allen & Unwin") (5.5.2, 7.5).
    • If more than one city of publication is listed in the book you are citing, use the first one listed (5.5.2).
    • If you do not know the date of publication, use the abbreviation "n.d." (5.5.24).
    • If you do not know the place of publication or the publisher use the abbreviation "n.p." (5.5.24).
    • Each entry of the works cited list contains the medium of publication consulted. This could be print (for print articles, books, and similar materials), web (for online content, including websites and information from databases such as Academic Search Premier and CBCA Complete ), film, DVD, CD-ROM, MP3 file or other descriptive type. For information on the naming a medium of publication, consult the MLA Handbook. chapter 5 in the section that discusses your publication type.
    How to cite.

    If possible, incorporate the title of the film or video in the text of your research paper, instead of using a parenthetical reference. For example:

    Ichikawa's Burmese Harp. narrating the experience of Japanese soldiers stationed in Burma during the Second World War, was one of the first films to depict the wartime experience from the perspective of the Japanese army.

    • It is not necessary to list performers, but performers or producers can be included if it seems relevant (5.7.3).
    • Include the original release date for a DVD or videocassette (5.7.3).
    • Include the medium after the latest date in the citation. Mediums include: film, DVD, videocassette, laser disc, etc. (5.7.3).
    • For a television or radio program see 5.7.1
    • Sound recordings, see 5.7.2
    • Interviews, see 5.7.7

    Online Film or Film Clip (e.g. YouTube Video) (5.6.2b, 6.4.1)

    If possible, incorporate the title of the film or video in the text of your research paper, instead of using a parenthetical reference (6.4.1). For example:

    This concept is demonstrated in the film "Hurricane Katrina: The Drive."


    • If no author is listed, start with the title of the document in the list of works cited (5.3.3).
    • If no publisher or sponsor of the site is available, use "N.p." (5.6.2b).
    • Include a URL only if the site is too difficult to find without it, or if an instructor requires it. If a URL must be divided between two lines, break it only after the double slashes or a single slash. Do not introduce a hyphen at the break (5.6.1).
    • Include the word "Web" after the publisher/N.p. describing that the medium of the site is the web (5.6.2b).
    • The first date listed is the date the film was published online. The second date listed is the date you accessed it (5.6.2b).

    As Marcel Proust reminisced: "There are perhaps no days of our childhood we lived so fully as those. we spent with a favourite book (qtd. in Wolf, 6). 1

    • Cite the indirect (secondary) source, i.e. the one you have in hand ("Wolf").
    • The source that has been cited is called the original source.
    • "qtd." stands for "quoted."
    • You may document the original source ("Proust") in a footnote ; provide a number for a footnote (6.5.1), e.g.:
    • 1 See Marcel Proust, On Reading (New York: Macmillan, 1971), 3, qtd. in Wolf, 6.
    • If you create a footnote for the original source, you will also need to create an entry for the original source in the list of Works Cited.

    Conference Proceedings, Print or Electronic (5.5.6, 5.5.21)

    (Brewin, Paul, and Monita 19)

    (10th International Workshop )



    • When citing a published conference proceeding in your paper, provide the same information as when citing a book but also include additional information such as the title and date of the conference (5.5.21).
    • If citing a single presentation at a conference, provide the author and title of the presentation and details about the conference proceedings in the same format as citing a chapter in a book (see the third example above) (5.5.6).
    • If you are citing an anonymous work, use the title of the work (or an abbreviated form of it) in the parenthetical (in-text) citation and alphabetize by the title of the work in the Works Cited list (5.3.3, 6.4.4).

    Lecture, Speech, Reading or Address (5.7.11)

    In his discussion of the evolution and nature of the fossil record, Professor Dunlop emphasized.

    • When citing an oral presentation, like a class lecture, give the speaker's name, the title of the presentation in quotation marks, if known, the name of the sponsoring organization, the location and the date.
    • Provide a descriptive label (Address, Lecture, Keynote speech, Reading) to indicate the type of presentation after the date.
    • If you are citing a class lecture, provide the lecture title in quotation marks after the professor's name, the course name and course number after the lecture title and add the word "Class lecture" after the date.
    • If your class lecture does not have a title, provide the course name and course number after the professor's name and write "Class lecture" (without quotation marks) after the date.

    Citation immediately below table

    Citation immediately below figure


    • When including a table in your paper, label and number the table (e.g. Table 1, Table 2) and provide a title for the table that is descriptive of the table's content. Include the source of the table in a caption.
    • All other illustrative visual material (e.g. a picture, map, graph or chart) except musical illustrations included in your paper should be labeled "Fig," assigned a number and given a caption.
    • If complete bibliographical information about the source of the table or illustration is provided in the caption, and the source is not mentioned in your paper, you do not need to include an entry for the source in the list of works cited.
    • Musical illustrations are labeled "Ex." instead of 'Fig."
    • Cite tables and figures according to regular MLA rules except:
      • Use commas instead of periods when citing tables and figures, except for the period at the end of the citation.
      • Format the author's name with the given name before the family name, (e.g. Mia Fuller, not Fuller, Mia).
      • Put publication information and page numbers for books in parentheses - (location: publisher, year; print; #).

    Custom Courseware packages are compilations of journal articles, book chapters and other materials selected by your instructor. The MLA manual does not give specific advice about citing these materials, so you will have to use your judgment and come up with your own solution.

    If you need to cite a source from a Custom Courseware package, here are two suggestions. However, our strong recommendation is to first check with your instructor.

    1. Find the full citation where the article, chapter, etc. was originally published, and cite accordingly. The full citations may be included on the first page of the coursepack. If not, search a relevant database or the library catalogue, or ask a librarian.

    2. Treat the Courseware package as an anthology, and the instructor who did the compilation as a book editor/compiler. Therefore, treat the article, chapter, etc. as if it was part of an anthology, or edited book. Most probably you will not have the page numbers, since the Custom Courseware is not a true publication and is not paginated throughout. You will also have to include the name of the compiler, the title of the Courseware, the name of the course (e.g. CMNS 210), the semester (e.g. Spring 2006) and the publisher ( Simon Fraser University). Bear in mind that someone trying to find the article/chapter from a coursepack you cited might not have access to the same coursepack.

    • FAQ page on the MLA site that includes helpful citation information and minor corrections to the Handbook .

    Several of these online guides, though helpful, nevertheless vary in terms of how they cite sources. Please keep this in mind while consulting these other online guides.

    • MLA Lite for Research Papers Includes images of appendices, charts, figures and many other aspects of a paper.
    • MLA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University. Includes a sample paper and many examples.