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Bill And Monica: An Oral History Essay, Research Paper

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The purpose of Plagiarism.org and Turnitin.com is to help put a stop to digital plagiarism. This means that papers will never again be recirculated or recycled every year, that papers will not be copied from one class and used for a different class, that papers from one university will not find their way to another university course, and finally, that papers acquired from the Internet will never be used to fulfill a course requirement. We hope to achieve these results by offering educators the most advanced tools for plagiarism detection available anywhere. Now in its fifth year of development, our technology– what we call Document Source Analysis– uses a set of powerful algorithms to create a ‘digital fingerprint’ of any text document. Here’s how it works:

First, we make a ‘digital fingerprint’ of any submitted document using a specially developed set of algorithms.

The document’s ‘fingerprint’ is cross-referenced against our local database containing hundreds of thousands of papers.

At the same time, we release automated web crawlers to scour the rest of the Internet for possible matches.

Finally, we create a custom, color coded ‘originality report’, complete with source links, for each paper.

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Oral Tradition Of Indians Essay Research Paper

Oral Tradition Of Indians Essay Research Paper

Oral Tradition Of Indians Essay, Research Paper

Conflict Between the Oral Tradition and the Written Form in The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven

The oral tradition of passing along history, information and stories of culture have been around since the beginning of time. In many cultures today, oral traditions are still the main means of passing down knowledge and history. Several problems arise from the oral tradition as a use of passing along of a people s heritage. Often as it is passed down from generation to generation some information is left out or forgotten. At this point problems arise between the written word and oral tradition. Many Native Americans still use it as a means to carry on the history of their society. The Native Americans are masters of telling stories. They are one of the few peoples without any trouble in keeping the oral tradition alive. They use the oral tradition as a means of enlightening those who have not witnessed the past. The Native Americans carry it close to their hearts. The oral tradition is where their heroes are born. The passing down of their culture through the oral tradition helps to keep their autonomy, yet many Native Americans have abandoned the practice of oral tradition to adapt to modern times and the written word. In his novel The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, Sherman Alexie demonstrates how he Native American population has kept the practice of passing along their heritage through the oral tradition despite the movement to the written word by most of society.

The Indians have always used the oral tradition as a way of immortalizing their heroes. Whether it is a mighty Plains Indian on the hunt over a hundred years ago or a young high school basketball player playing the game of their life. Every time one of the stories is told it is exaggerated a little, making the character or characters in the story greater each time. Of course there are always downfalls though as each of the legendary basketball players was built up in hopes that one-day one of them would make it to college. None of them made and as each generation passes, they pass on the tales of those great players to the next generation hoping that one of the young children on the reservation might make it one day. There was a young man about the age of Victor and those of his generation that has been immortalized in these stories. When Victor asks Adrian about Silas he replies, Do I remember? I was there when he grabbed the defensive rebound and I don t mean it looked like he flew, or it was so beautiful it was almost like he flew. I mean he flew, period. (Alexie, 47) The Indians keep retelling stories like these to keep their heritage alive. Julius Windmaker is one of the players that have been immortalized. Yet he succumbs to material things like alcohol and hope is lost in him. Stories of Julius are passed down th

rough the generations to keep the spirit alive that one might make it off the reservation one day. That is where struggle comes into play between the oral tradition and written word. The telling of stories broadens the imagination and gives birth to hope. The Native Americans needed hope ever since the white man came to the Americas and took over the land that was rightfully the Indians. There is an old saying in sports that says, anybody can look good on paper. The imagination can make things look better though and the Indians continue to use the oral tradition to give a sense of stability in their ever-shaky world.

Thomas Builds-the-Fire is the one that continues to use the oral tradition. He chooses to close his eyes when telling his stories. It s as if Thomas is linked to his stories spiritually when he closes his eyes. Thomas speaks whatever ideas, pictures and visions come to his mind. He has been abandoned by many of his friends for the apparent reason that he has not abandoned the use of the oral tradition. He uses the oral tradition though, not as a means to continue the history of the Coeur d Alene Indians, but to tell stories that come to him. They often have a significant meaning or moral importance. Yet the younger Indians on the reservation do not understand him or the importance of the stories he tells. The other Indians of his generation have given up the oral tradition and moved onto the written word. Thomas stories bored them; therefore many of his generation simply grew tired of hearing his stories. This is an example how the Indians are turning more to the ways of the written word. It may also be due in part to the fact that the younger Indians are like any other young people of the day and age and have a shorter attention span. The main reason for the Indians not listening to Thomas stories is that they have all grown tired of the circumstances surrounding them today and they are fed up with hearing about the past that Thomas tells them about in his stories. Thomas continues to tell his stories although everyone simply ignores him and he is often found telling the stories to himself. Alexie uses Thomas in particular to demonstrate the traditional Native American culture while at the same time showing the struggle of the general Indian population s switch from the oral tradition to written word in one man.

Though the oral tradition is still practiced and held sacred by many today, many of the Native Americans inhabiting our country have changed with time and have adapted the written form. Alexie showed how hard it could be on people to adapt to a new form of passing along information. The tension that he displayed between the traditional ways of the Native Americans and those that they had to adapt to were incredible. It created inner conflict between certain people like Thomas and his peers that would not have been there in earlier times.

Реферат: Theatre Oral History Report Essay Research Paper

Theatre Oral History Report Essay, Research Paper

Theatre History Oral Report

Aristophanes (448?-385 BC), Athenian playwright, considered one of the greatest writers of comedy in

literary history. His plays have been produced through the centuries and have remained popular because

of their wit, comic invention, and poetic language.

Aristophanes is believed to have been born in Athens, Greece, in the deme, or township, of

Cydathenaeum. Presumably, he was well educated and may have had property on the island of Aegina.

He had three sons-Philippos, Araros, and Nikostratos-all of whom were comic poets.

Aristophanes was first and foremost a satirist. During his lifetime Athens underwent a period of

convulsive cultural and social change, and he found a ready target in the politicians, poets, and

philosophers of his day. It would nevertheless be misleading to describe Aristophanes as a reactionary or a

conservative, since his works show no sympathy for the aristocratic party in Athenian politics. No class,

age, or profession was exempt from his satire. Aristophanes wrote more than 40 plays, of which 11 are

extant. His first three plays were produced under pseudonyms, including The Acharnians (425 BC), a plea

for ending the war with Sparta. The Knights (424 BC), the first of the plays of Aristophanes to be

presented under his own name, is a devastating satire about Athenian politician and military leader Cleon,

champion of the democratic forces and leader of the war party. The Clouds (423 BC) satirizes Greek

philosopher Socrates, whose penetrating analysis of established values Aristophanes considered opposed

to the interests of the state. In The Wasps (422 BC) Aristophanes satirized the courts of justice of the

day, and in The Peace (421 BC) he again argued for peace between Athens and Sparta. The Birds (414

BC) is a fantasy in which an Athenian persuades the birds to build a city in the clouds and then imposes

his own terms on the gods. Lysistrata (411 BC), another satire on war, in which women strike for peace

by practicing celibacy, is his most famous work. Thesmorphoriazusae (411 BC) and The Frogs (405 BC)

include attacks on Athenian playwright Euripides. Ecclesiazusa (393 BC) is a satire on the idea of

communal ownership of property, and Plutus (388 BC) reduced to absurdity the concept of redistribution

of wealth in Athens. These works, basically fantasies, were written in a form related to that of

contemporary tragedy. They include dialogue scenes, long choral harangues, lyric passages, and a great

deal of music and dance.

The plays of Aristophanes exerted considerable influence on English satire, notably that of English

playwright Ben Jonson in the 17th century and English novelist Henry Fielding in the 18th century.

Aristophanes was born in 450 b.C. or a few years later. We make the conclusion for the year since in

“Nefeles”-(”The Clouds”) (528-533) the writer leaves us to think that he was extremely young and

he didn’t have self-confidence when the play “Thetalis” (his first play) was staged.

431 Pelloponesian war starts, between Athens and Sparta.

430 Pestilence in Athens.

429 Death of Pericleus.

428/7 Plato is born.

427 “Thetalis” (lost)

426 “Babylonians” (lost). Kleon lawsuits Aristophanes, with the accusation that by that play ridicule

the elective rulers of the city, infront of the audiense and among them a lot of foreigh visitors, in Grant

Dionesia. The suit didn’t seem to have any consequence for him.

425 “Aharnes”. First prize in Linea

424 “Heppeas” (”Horsemen”). First prize in Linea

423 “Nefeles” (”Clouds”). First form (lost) that won the third and last prize in Grand Dionesia.

Peace settlement, temporarily stops the hostilities between Athens and Sparta.

422 “Sfikes” (”Wasps”), second prize in Linea.

421 “Peace”, second-best prize in Grand Dionesia.

417 “Nefeles”, partially revised form (saved) that never staged in ancient years.

415 Athens sends in Sicily a big expeditionary legion.

414 “Amfiaraos” (lost) in Linea. “Ornithes” (”Birds”), second prize in Grand Dionesia.

413 Sparta restarts warfare. Athenian army destroyed in Sicily.

411 “Lysistrata” in Linea, “Thesmoforiazouses” in Grand Dionesia. Oligarchic revolution

dominated temporarily in Athens, but democratic polity restored a few months later.

408 “Ploutos” (lost), it’s not the play that staged later.

406 Euripides & Sophocles death.

405 “Vatrahee” (”Frogs”), 1st prize in Linea. Plastering and naval blockade of Athens.

404 Sparta lays peace. An oligarchic group (The Tyranny of Thirties) takes up rule.

403 Local war and reinstatment of democracy.

399 Sentence and deth of Socrates.

395 The war with Sparta restarts, but with diferent correlation of allies. First steps of Athenian navy

392 “Heclesiasouses” (the chronology is based mostly upon internal criterions and probably trown

388 “Ploutos” (”wealth”) (saved)

After 388: “Heolosikon” (lost) and “Kokalos” (lost). Produser and director was one of poet sons.

From “Aharnes” we make the conclusion that at the time this play was staged, Aristophanes lived in

Eagina, the island the Athenians had colonized in 431 b.C. when they threw out the old dwellers (as

philolaconists). We know that his sons where comedy writers but we know nothing for his father

(Phillipos his name) nor for his social or economic status.

Oral History Essay by

Oral History

Winds of change. riding piggyback on the economic miracle of the past three decades. are sweeping across the UAE landscape. bringing in their wake gusts of liberalism. threatening the foundations of a traditionalist. dormant Arabic society. Nostalgic traditionalists are resisting change. Arab society. swamped by an overwhelming intrusion of migrants. is in a state of flux. The question is not how soon will the traditionalists succumb. but will they ever

OF FALCONS AND SALUKIS

He who does not know his past cannot make the best of his present and

future. for it is from the past that we learn

Even as the priceless oil oozes. trickles and gushes from the bowels of the earth. greasing the modern engine of materialism. the Arab watches reflects. pines for the world left yonder in the stark wilderness of the desert. and sparse. rugged mountains

His was an idyllic life. blending into seasons. which could with a gust of wind turn into a bloody duel. horror and nightmare for the enemy. and sometimes for the Bedouin warrior. when tribes squabbled and clashed over territorial rights and water holes

Winter the Arab trudged. scimitar in the scabbard. with his camels goats. sheep and splendid pure-bred horses for greener grazing pastures Summer saw him succoring the shades of the oasis. where he tended his date gardens. bred and trained his salukis. and nudged his falcons to hunt and kill for luscious meat

Beginning Arab migration in first millennium B .C. till the arrival of the Europeans and well into the nineteenth century. the Arab tribes roamed free in the sandy. mountainous and coastal terrain of what has now politically evolved into the United Arab Emirates

The harsh environment moulded Arab lifestyle. Where fortunes fluctuated with the desert wind. the family and tribe became the bedrock of Arab society. A social structure evolved wherein each family was bound by obligations of mutual assistance to a wide circle of relatives and to the tribe. Selfless hospitality was the source of honour and pride

Our society was based on clan-loyalties as well as marriage ties says the interviewee. a traditionalist. voice surcharged with pathos of a life. shifting sands have dumped into the dustbin of history

The advent of Islam in the 6th century provided a common coalescing religion

There was no direct British conflict with Islam because they to leave the country as it was in poverty. illiteracy. and devoid of all institutions. They left the affairs to society to the sheikhs introduced themselves as colonizers and behaved as such. They did not know anything about Arabic culture. Their behavior made us appreciate our culture and history more and more. and we realized that our dignity as a people cannot be separated from our traditions and culture

The Bedouins cultivated date gardens tapping the water beneath the sands. and through an elaborate irrigation system from mountain aquifers harvesting in the torrid heat between late June and early October. Ripe. boiled and compressed and congealed into nourishing.

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Oral History

Oral History

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Autor: reviewessays • December 31, 2010 • Essay • 538 Words (3 Pages) • 336 Views

The study of traditional oral history is relatively a new concept started in the early twentieth century. Traditional cultures that practice traditional oral history are said to be "preliterate." Although the title "preliterate" may sound offensive, it merely states that they depend on oral transmission rather than printed text. On the other hand, if a culture depends on printed text rather than oral transmission, they are titled "post-traditional." There are many other traits that separate post and pre literate cultures, and I have found similarities, and difference alike, with regards to oral history and religion. Specifically this paper will explore how traditional African religion inhabits many of the same traits as preliterate cultures, while newer religions, such as Christianity and Islam, inhabit the traits of a post-traditional culture.

The degree that traditional African religions rely on oral transmission is extraordinary. This is necessary because there are about three thousand African tribes, all of which have their own religious system (Mbiti 1). Almost nothing is ever written down, instead passed on through story telling, song, dance, and other activities. In traditional African religion there are no creeds to be recited; instead, the creeds are written in the heart of the individual, and each person is a living creed of his own religion. People simply assimilate whatever religious ideas and practices are held or observed by their families and communities. John S. Mbita, author of African Religions and Philosophy, explains that, "these traditions have been handed down from forebearers, and each generation takes them up with modifications suitable to its own historical situation and needs (Mbita 3)". Traditional African religion is always changing and varies from tribe to tribe.

Newer religions rely and depend on written text. Christianity has the Bible, while Islam has the Koran. Each religion relies and depends on the exact words of the sacred texts. Islam, for an example, believes that if the Koran is not in Arabic, it is not the sacred text. This shows how important written text is for newer religions. Muslims and Christians depend on reciting passages in exact words, and the words of the sacred texts never change. Although the Bible may be interpreted differently from church to church, the text remains the same.

Traditional oral culture is greatly community associated,