Ap Style Guide Writing Percentages In Essays - Essay for you

Essay for you

Ap Style Guide Writing Percentages In Essays

Rating: 4.5/5.0 (18 Votes)

Category: Essay

Description

Difference Between AP Stylebook and Chicago Manual of Style

The Associated Press Stylebook and the Chicago Manual of Style are very different guides for two very different groups of people who make their living with the written word.

  • The Chicago Manual of Style is by far the larger reference work, with over 950 pages.
  • The AP Stylebook has only 330 pages.

The information contained in each has a small crossover factor; but, in general, each is a specialized reference work for its intended profession.

  • The Chicago Manual of style is the guide for authors, editors and publishers of books, periodicals and journals.
  • The AP Stylebook is the prime reference for those in the news and public relations fields.
Differences: AP Stylebook vs. Chicago Manual of Style

The AP Stylebook concerns itself with a much smaller group of writers: those who produce newspaper copy and the writers concerned with public relations and informational news releases. The citing of sources is treated much differently in news media once the final product is produced, and there is very little regarding the citing of sources in the AP Stylebook.

The Chicago Manual of Style is a much larger and detail oriented work primarily because of the breadth of its intended audience: writers of every kind from the latest mystery author to the doctor writing articles for a medical journal. It covers the concerns of editing all of those works and laying out the various works by publishers. Large portions are devoted to citing other sources, reference lists and bibliographies.

AP Stylebook Content

The actual rules content and instructions for setting up news articles correctly is surprisingly a small portion of the AP Stylebook. The majority of the book is devoted to a combination of dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopedia covering the most commonly misused or confused places, words and concepts presented in news articles.

It is much more geared toward ensuring that the factual information regarding such things as the correct usage of titles of nobility or the correct meaning of military acronyms are observed, than laying out rules for the actual writing of a news article.

There are certain guidelines regarding construction and formatting of different types of articles but percentage wise, they are a very small portion of the contents.

Chicago Manual of Style Content

The Chicago Handbook of Style is much more oriented to the technical aspects of writing and publishing in a correct fashion.

There is an extensive section on punctuation and an even more extensive section of the correct quoting of sources, quotes and references.

Separate sections are included for tables and charts, the inclusion of illustrations and how to properly express mathematics and numbers in written form.

There is a portion on names and terms somewhat similar to that in the AP Stylebook but much smaller and intended more to guide the writer in proper inclusion in sentence structure and usage than factual accuracy.

Similarities: AP Stylebook and Chicago Manual of Style Plagiarism

A similarity between the two works is that both have guidelines to prevent their users from falling prey to having their writing questioned.

In the case of the Chicago Manual this takes the form of comprehensive guidelines for distinguishing between ones original work and quotes or sections attributed to another source or author. This guidance aids the writer in guarding against charges of plagiarism or intellectual property infringement.

The AP Stylebook has a section similar to this but specific to a concern more commonly encountered by news and media professionals: libel.

The guidance regarding libel presented in the AP Stylebook is not intended to be a textbook or comprehensive legal guide but rather a working guide for the writers and editors.

Topics covered in this section include:

  • First Amendment Rights
  • Treatment of public officials
  • The right to privacy of individuals and groups

The AP Stylebook is very clear that any complex questions of libel and associated topics should be brought to the attention of competent legal advisers and that the Stylebook guidance is not the definitive answer to any given issue.

Detail Orientation

The AP Stylebook and the Chicago Manual of Style are both written in the same arena but are directed at two different sets of contestants.

  • The Chicago Manual is much more detail oriented toward the actual nuts and bolts of manuscript and article construction, including how to correctly cite other sources than your own work.
  • The AP Stylebook concentrates on being a general guide to news and public relations writing to help the writer and editor avoid potentially embarrassing mistakes in large distribution work.

In book and article writing, the creator has weeks, months or years to get every detail correct and the Chicago Manual reflects that high level of craftsmanship. In news media, however, deadlines and the need to publish immediately demand a much more rough and ready guide that sets general rules and relies on the individual writer’s talent and the editor to make sure the details come out right.

Post a comment. Difference Between AP Stylebook and Chicago Manual of Style By YourDictionary

The Associated Press Stylebook and the Chicago Manual of Style are very different guides for two very different groups of people who make their living with the written word.The Chicago Manual of Style is by far the larger reference work, with over 950 pages.The AP Stylebook has only 330 pages.The information contained in each has a small crossover factor; but, in general, each is a specialized reference work for its intended profession.The Chicago Manual of style is the guide for authors, editors and publishers of books, periodicals and journals.The AP Stylebook is the prime reference for those in the news and public relations fields.

Difference Between AP Stylebook and Chicago Manual of Style

Other articles

The Basics of AP Style - The Visual Communication Guy: Design, Writing, and Teaching Resources All in One Place!

The Basics of AP Style What is AP style?

AP style, or Associated Press style, is the writing style guide used by the Associated Press. It is a standardized way of writing created and maintained by the Associated Press, a long standing authority within the news world.

Each year the Associated Press publishes an updated version of The Associated Press Stylebook. Many of the main style aspects remain the same, but each year there are small edits, additions and subtractions to the way that AP style is used. The stylebook is a useful reference to have, especially when unsure how to treat specific words and ideas within writing.

Who can benefit from using AP style?

AP Style is a necessity for journalists and those in the news industry. Public relations professionals writing press releases should know AP style as well because they work closely with newspapers, but essentially AP style can be useful to anyone.

Many businesses and companies will use a writing style guide to create a common writing style for their communications. Some of them even use AP style, so learning the basics is a perfect idea. It also makes a good starting point for knowing how to use a style guide, regardless of whether you end up using AP style regularly or use another style guide during your career.

What parts of AP style do I need to know?

There is a lot that is included in AP style, and much more than can be covered in a simple blog post. However, knowing some the basics of AP style can get you started. Here are 10 basics of AP style that are most common and most useful:

In general, spell out numbers one through nine and use figures for numbers 10 and above. Numbers that are two words are connected with a hyphen.

Ariana has six dolls that she plays with regularly.

There are twenty-six stops on Leslie’s regular bus route.

Always use figures instead of spelling out ages. Use hyphens for ages that are used as adjectives before a noun or that substitute a noun.

Ryan is 7 years old.

The 12-year-old boy is living with his grandparents.

Use figures in specifying time except for “noon” and “midnight.” Use a colon to separate hours from minutes, and use “a.m.” and “p.m.” rather than using “o’clock.” The abbreviations for “a.m.” and “p.m.” are lowercase letters with periods after each letter.

We eat lunch at noon every day.

The supervisor meeting is at 9 a.m. on Tuesday.

Always use figures without the additions of “st,” “nd,” “rd” or “th.”

In all cases, capitalize the names of months. Only abbreviate the months Jan. Feb. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. and Dec. when used with a date. Spell out months when using alone or with a year. When dates contain the month, day, and year, place the year within commas.

The Annual General Meeting is always held on the second weekend in November.

Many couples celebrate their relationships on Feb. 14, also known as Valentine’s Day.

Cameron is counting down the days to Dec. 16, 2016, which is the last day of classes for the fall semester.

Do not capitalize seasons unless they are a part of a formal name.

Hector said that fall is his favorite season.

The 2018 Winter Olympics will be held in Pyeongchang, South Korea.

Use figures for percentages. Percent is spelled out and the symbol is not used. For a range, spell out the middle word rather than using a hyphen.

The professor said that 80 percent of the class passed the exam.

Between 15 and 20 percent of employees will be selected for a random performance evaluation.

Only use street abbreviations (Ave. Blvd. St.) with a numbered address. Spell them out and capitalize when a street name is referenced without a number. Spell it out and leave it lowercase when used alone or with more than one street name. Similar words such as “drive,” “alley,” “road,” etc. are always spelled out.

Always use figures for an address number, and capitalize and spell out First through Ninth when used as street names, use figures for 10 th and above.

Abbreviate compass points on a street except for when there is no number included.

The president of the United States lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.

The local park is located on Falcon Boulevard.

The location for the party is 1234 W. Grandison Drive.

Use figures and a $ sign in all references to specific dollar amounts below $999,999.

For amounts over $1 million, use up to two decimal places, and do not put a hyphen before the word “million.”

Rachel borrowed $50 from Vicki for car repairs.

The estimated cost of the business renovation is $2.36 million.

Job titles are capitalized only if directly preceding the name of the person who holds that title. Titles that come before a name that if offset by commas or that do not come before a name are not capitalized.

President Frank Thomas will speak about the company’s expected earnings in a press conference Wednesday.

The current vice president, Joe Biden, was born in Scranton Pennsylvania.

Capitalize the main words in a title and put quotations around the title, except for the Bible and books that are primarily reference materials. This includes book titles, magazine titles, movie titles, poem titles, song titles, etc.

Selena’s favorite novel is “Of Mice and Men.”

Lin Manuel-Miranda’s hit musical, “Hamilton,” follows the story of founding father Alexander Hamilton.

Do you use AP style? What do you think is the most important rule of AP style?

Share This Post:

UIS Writing Style Guide - Newsroom - University of Illinois Springfield

University of Illinois Springfield UIS Writing Style Guide

Language is always evolving and, for the most part, grammar, style, and usage can’t be presented as simply black and white. Any number of style guides and reference books are available today; they don’t always agree with each other, but that’s all right.

The guidelines you’ll see here are based on the Associated Press Stylebook, though some departures have been made that are specific to UIS. AP Style is used by journalists and is the preferred style for news releases and other information sent to the media.

This guide is by no means exhaustive; it’s meant only to address some of the most common questions that writers may have.

If you want additional information, try:

Click on a letter to jump to that section of the alphabet:

  • Degrees: The preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase, such as John Doe, who has a doctorate in biology. Use apostrophes when the degrees are spelled out (bachelor’s degree, master’s degree). Lowercase a degree when it’s spelled out following a person’s name (Harold P. Simpson, doctor of law) or if it’s referred to in general terms (a master of science, a doctorate in physics). Use abbreviations for academic degrees (B.A. M.B.A. Ph.D.) only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would prove cumbersome.
  • Departments: Lowercase the name of an academic department (the chemistry department, the computer science department), except when there is a proper noun in the title (The English department). Department names used as part of an official title are uppercase (The University of Illinois Springfield Computer Science Department, UIS Psychology Department).
  • Titles: Uppercase academic titles when they precede a name and are used as part of it (Professor of Archaeology June Clemens). Lowercase academic titles following a name (June Clemens, professor of archaeology). Also see the section on “Titles” below.
  • Use the active voice (the board decided) rather than the passive (a decision was reached by the board) whenever you can.
  • Compass points and terms like street, avenue. and boulevard can be abbreviated in mailing addresses (818 N. Main St.).
  • Use this format when sending U.S. mail to a campus address:
    John Q. Professor
    Aeronautics Department, UHB 6013
    University of Illinois at Springfield
    One University Plaza, MS UHB 6000
    Springfield, IL 62703-5407

Alright is all wrong.

  • Author is a noun, not a verb. You can write a book or you can be the author of a book, but you can’t author one.
  • Don’t use several words when a few can say the same thing, and more clearly. For example:
    due to the fact that = because
    in the event that = if
    she is of the opinion that = she thinks
  • If you’re writing for a general audience, don’t use a lot of jargon or technical terms unless you also explain what they mean.
  • If you must use foreign words or phrases, double check for correct spelling and meaning. (You should also italicize them. However, if you cite a longer passage not in English, set it off like a quotation.)
  • In the acronyms for most of the structures on campus (such as HSB, SAB, or UHB) the final “B” stands for building. So rather than saying Student Life is in room 20 of the SLB building (or the Student Life Building building), say Student Life is in SLB 20.
  • The name of the university is University of Illinois Springfield. By decision of the Chancellor’s Cabinet, we dropped the use of the word “at” and are now known as University of Illinois Springfield – or simply Illinois Springfield.
  • Avoid using campus to refer to the three universities in Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield. These should be referred to as universities, unless the reference is to the grounds.
    • We are proud to be one of three universities in the world-class University of Illinois System.
    • UIS recently added a statue of Abraham Lincoln to its campus.
  • Lowercase university for a generic reference. Do not use alone with an initial cap to refer to the System.
    • President Killeen was among the university leaders in attendance at the national conference.
  • Effective with the approval of the 2016 Strategic Framework, University of Illinois System is the proper way to identify the entire organization. Acceptable second references are: U of I System, System, or University of Illinois on second reference.
    • The University of Illinois System is regarded as the flagship public university system for the state of Illinois. The value of a University of Illinois degree to its graduates is indisputable.
  • “U of I”, shorthand for University of Illinois, is to be used on second reference only. No punctuation. Do not use UI (although this is used by some media outlets and some units, such as UI Health).
  • Springfield is the capital city, so we have the capitol building. (It helps to remember that the capitol building has a dome, which is spelled with an “o.”)
  • Please resist the urge to use lots of capital letters, and especially to use all caps, except OCCASIONALLY for emphasis.
  • Do capitalize:
    Proper names of specific persons, places, or things. Also capitalize phrases, such as Spring Semester 2016.
  • Don’t capitalize:
    State in the phrase state of Illinois ; words like center or auditorium when they stand in for the unit’s complete proper name; academic degrees when spelled out (a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, a doctorate degree); academic subjects (My adviser says I need to take a botany course.) Also use lowercase in these instances: the city of Springfield, central Illinois.
  • In titles, the first and last words, as well as all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and words like if. because. and that are capitalized. The words a. an. the. and. but. or. for. nor. and prepositions of any length are lowercased (unless they’re the first or last word). The to in infinitives or the second part of a hyphenated word is also lowercased (A Long Way to Run. To Have and Have Not. Planning a Sit-down Dinner Party. Your Next Dinner Party: Buffet or Sit-down ).
  • Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series. (We ate toast, eggs and cereal. I had my choice of red, black or blue pens.)
  • In this sense, compose means to create or put together. (Jack’s comic book collection is composed of several first editions.)
  • Comprise means to contain or include. (The panel comprises people from all parts of campus.) Note, however, that the panel is not “comprised of” people from all parts of campus.
  • You may want to use constitute. or something entirely different, if neither compose nor comprise seems to work. (Eleven problems constitute the math test. The math test consists of eleven problems. People from all parts of campus make up the panel. Panel members are drawn from all parts of campus.)
  • Use include when a list may not be complete. (The list of confirmed guests includes Senator Gatsby.)
  • For dates and years, use figures.
  • Capitalize days of the week, but do not abbreviate. If an event occurs more than seven days before or after the current date, use the month and a figure.
  • Spell out the month unless it is used with a date. When used with a date, abbreviate only the following months: Jan. Feb. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. and Dec. Always capitalize months.
  • Do not use st. nd. rd. or th with dates.
  • Use commas as follows:
    The twins were born in April 1989.
    The twins were born on Tuesday, Feb. 30.
    The twins turned 16 on Dec. 30, 2005.
    The twins started driving on May 1, 2005, and they went to the mall twice.
  • Use apostrophes carefully: the 1990s, the ’90s (not the 1990’s or 90’s)
  • Capitalize the title as follows: Dean Olivia Gordon; Dean Gordon; Olivia Gordon, dean of the School of Architectural Sciences; Dean of the School of Architectural Sciences Olivia Gordon. Olivia Gordon is the dean of architectural sciences. (Also see the “Titles” section below.)
  • In general, we prefer to use “Dr.” as a medical title and avoid it when talking about academics or clerics. When it’s necessary to mention that a person holds a doctorate, you can often do it parenthetically (Joseph Q. Bixby, Ph.D. or Joseph Bixby, who holds a doctorate in geology). However, as an academic institution we understand that earning a doctorate is an achievement to be respected and also that speaking of “Dr. Bixby” may contribute to the prestige, credibility, and authority of the University, its faculty, and programs. In those instances, use “Dr. Joseph Bixby” on first reference and “Dr. Bixby” on second reference. Then, depending on the case at hand, “Bixby” may be acceptable in subsequent references. Unless you’re writing very informally, or you’re a close personal friend or are quoting someone who is, never refer to Dr. Bixby as “Joe.”
  • Although they both mean “to make certain,” ensure and insure are not quite interchangeable. Insure more properly refers to finances. (Using this method will ensure success. Insure yourself against the high cost of illness.) Assure implies the removal of doubt or suspense. (I assure you that I mean no harm.)
  • Entitled means to have a right to something. (Martin was entitled to a third of his grandfather’s estate.) Don’t use it if you’re talking about the name of a book, play, etc. (The presentation was titled “Learning to Use Algorithms.”)

No entries at this time

  • Note the hyphen. Abbreviate GPA and give the number with two decimal places (a GPA of 3.00 on a 4.00 scale).
  • Although it’s increasingly common to see they/their used as gender-neutral singular pronouns, this is incorrect. (A student should consult with his or her adviser. Students should consult with their advisers.) If following this advice makes a sentence awkward, try to rewrite it.
  • Check a recent dictionary. Treatment of a word can change as it moves into common use.
  • Or read for clarity. “Her reply was thought provoking.” Does that mean her reply was thought (considered) provoking or that it was thought-provoking (it made you stop and think)?
  • Words made with these prefixes are generally not hyphenated:
    anti: antihero
    bi: biannual
    co: coauthor
    extra: extraterrestrial
    inter: interrelated
    micro: microeconomics
    mid: midlife
    multi: multiracial
    non: nonviolent
    over: overprotective
    post: postdoctoral
    pre: prenatal
    pro: prorated
    re: reexamine
    semi: semiannual
    sub: subatomic
    un: unwashed
    under: underpaid
  • Some exceptions: If the resulting word is difficult to pronounce or looks odd, hyphenate it (cochair/co-chair; coworker/co-worker). Hyphenate words that can be mistaken for other words (co-op/coop; re-creation /recreation).
  • Hyphenate two words combined to make an adjective. (It was a hair-raising experience. Helen is a full-time student, so she can only work part time.)
  • Ex is hyphenated when it’s used to mean former (ex-spouse).
  • It’s a noun, not a verb. (The impact of a meteor had a tremendous impact on the dinosaurs.) The meteor did not impact the dinosaurs, though you could say it affected them or had an influence on them.
  • Don’t mix prepositions and dashes in the same phrase. These are ok: “He works from 9 to 5.” “He works 9-5.” This is not: “He works from 9-5.” These are also ok: “People between the ages of 18 and 25 will love this movie.” “People aged 18-25 will love this movie.” “Everyone aged 18 through 25 will love this movie.”
    Note: Using thru for through is acceptable only in very informal writing, or in tabbed or other materials where space may be a consideration.

No entries at this time

  • Simple, short lists don’t require much punctuation. “To go camping we need a tent, sleeping bag and insect repellant.” “We need a tent, sleeping bag and insect repellant to go camping.”
  • Complex lists may require additional punctuation. “We need these things to go camping: (1) a lightweight, easily assembled tent; (2) sleeping bags that are comfortable and can be zipped open and closed quickly and (3) hypoallergenic insect repellant, preferably a brand that contains an FDA-approved sunblock.” [Note: You can substitute (a), (b), and (c) for (1), (2), and (3).]
  • For even amounts, omit the .00 except if needed in tabbed lists ($5, not $5.00). It’s easy to misread $5.00 as $500.
  • For amounts less than $1, use figures and spell out cents (5 cents, 75 cents).
  • “The new library cost $1 million.” “The chips cost 88 cents.” “He looked like a million dollars.” “Jason had to put in his two cents.”
  • In general, spell out numbers one through nine and use figures for numbers 10 and higher. “The woman had four children and 12 grandchildren.”
  • The complete, proper name of an office should be capitalized. Other references should be lowercased (the Office of Financial Assistance, the financial assistance office).
  • It’s percent not per cent .
  • Except in tabular material, use numbers and spell the word out (1 percent, not one percent or 1%) and use decimals, not fractions (0.5 percent, not 1/2 percent or 1/2 %).
  • In general, plurals are not made by using an apostrophe + s. However, you can make an abbreviation plural by using ” ‘s ” if there is more than one period (M.A.’s and Ph.D.’ s, but vols. and yrs.).
  • Proper names are never made plural by using an apostrophe. (The Joneses (not Jones’s) left on vacation. All the Sallys (not Sally’s) are here.
  • A collective noun is a group of individuals considered as a unit – an audience, jury, or committee, for example. Collective nouns take singular verbs and pronouns when you’re thinking of the members as a whole. (The family who lives next door is named Mulligan.) These nouns take plural verbs and pronouns when group members are thought of as individuals. (The jury are washing their hands before they go to dinner.)
  • Words like athletics and politics are generally considered singular. (Politics is a dirty business.)
  • Our preference for forming the possessive of proper nouns ending in “s” is to add only an apostrophe (Texas’ flag, UIS’ soccer team).
  • Possessive pronouns ending in “s” do not take an apostrophe. (My hand is cleaner than yours. Your hand is cleaner than hers.)
  • Don’t confuse it’s (it is) with its. (It’s time to go. The dog bit its trainer.)
  • Proved is a verb. (He proved to be an exciting speaker.) Proven is an adjective. (He has a proven talent for speaking.)
  • Quality is a noun, not an adjective.
    This is ok: “We’re proud of the quality of our faculty.” This isn’t: “We’re proud of our quality faculty. “You can use quality as a modifier, however, if you combine it with another word. (We have a high-quality faculty.)

No entries at this time

  • Spell out all state names in the middle of a story, even when used in conjunction with a city name (Springfield, Illinois). Abbreviate state names when they are used as part of a dateline, list, agate or tabular material. The following state names are not abbreviated: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah. For a full list of state abbreviations, visit the OWL Purdue website .
  • The choice of that or which can make a difference in the sense of your sentence.”Norma never wore perfume that made her sneeze.” (But she drenched herself in the other kind.)
    “Norma never wore perfume, which made her sneeze.” (She had allergies.)
  • Use that to introduce an essential clause, one that can’t be eliminated without changing your meaning.
    Use which to introduce a nonessential clause, one that can be left out without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. (Frank couldn’t recall the Latin phrase that he used as a password. Frank couldn’t recall the Latin phrase, which he used as a password.)
  • Times should be designated by a.m. or p.m. Don’t use :00 except as needed in tabular material.
  • 12 midnight, 12 noon, or Friday evening at 8 p.m. are redundant. Try midnight, noon, Friday at 8 p.m. or Friday evening at eight o’clock.
  • A personal title is capitalized when it comes immediately before the holder’s name and is used as part of that name (Chancellor Daniel Henderson), but not if it follows the name (Daniel Henderson, chancellor). Some titles can be abbreviated if they’re used with a person’s full name (Sen. Daniel Henderson). Consult a reference source if you have questions about the use of religious or honorary titles.
  • Use quotation marks around titles of books, computer games, movies, operas, plays, poems, albums, songs, radio and television programs and works of art. Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters.

Examples:
Books: “The Kite Runner”
Poems: “The Iliad”
Movies: “The Day the Earth Stood Still”
Operas and other Musical Pieces: “The Marriage of Figaro”
Plays: “The Death of a Salesman”
Record Albums: Mudvayne’s “Lost and Found”
TV and Radio Series “A Prairie Home Companion”
Works of Art: Van Gogh’s “Sunflowers”, Rodin’s “The Thinker”

Do not put quotation marks around the Bible or books that are primarily catalogs of reference material. This category also includes, almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks and similar publications. Do not use quotation marks around the name of computer software, such as Word. Names of newspapers, journals or magazines are not to be quoted or italicized.

Examples:
The State Journal-Register
The Bible
The Koran
Encyclopedia Britannica
The Journal of Continuing Higher Education

These require quotation marks:
Articles in magazines and newspapers (“Fed Drops Interest Rate” in the New York Times)
Computer Games or Apps (“Farmville” on Facebook)
Dissertations and papers (a paper titled “What I Did on My Summer Vacation”)
Essays (John Locke’s “Essay Concerning Human Understanding”)
Short poems (Alfred Noyes’ “The Highwayman”)
Song titles (Tina Turner’s version of “Proud Mary”)
Video games (“World of Warcraft”)These do not require quotation marks:
Individual episodes of a TV series (the Humbug episode of “The X Files”)
Statues (The Young Lawyer)
Websites and apps (Facebook or Instagram)

  • See the “Campus” entry above.
  • No hyphen.
  • The correct form when referring to a UIS vice chancellor is “vice chancellor for” not “of.” (Michael Millroy is vice chancellor for human resource management.)
  • Use who or whom instead of that to refer to people and to animals with names. Use who when it’s the subject of the sentence, clause, or phrase. (Lassie is the dog who saved Timmy.) Use whom when it’s the object of a verb or preposition. (Timmy is the boy whom Lassie saved.)

No entries at this time

A (VERY) BRIEF GUIDE TO ELECTRONIC STYLE

Matters of electronic style – no less than old-fashioned grammar – are open to interpretation.

The following examples briefly represent a general style adopted for this university.

And please, do take the time to read over what you’ve written at least once before hitting the send button. Unless your input is urgently needed, clarity, spelling, punctuation, grammar, and basic civility still count.

  • All these are commonly used, but we lean toward keeping the hyphen and lowercasing the “e,” unless it’s the first word in a sentence.

Emoticons and acronyms

  • Please don’t use little smiley faces. ) or similar emoticons in anything but the most casual messages.
  • Likewise, don’t assume that everyone knows what “BTW,” “LOL,” or other trendy acronyms mean.
  • Lowercase “internet” in the middle of a sentence.
  • Like the “1” in 800 telephone numbers, the “http://” can (almost always) be safely omitted from web addresses.
  • Don’t underline web addresses, and don’t underline other text for emphasis. Most people now assume that underlined text is linked text.
  • Opinions differ about putting a period at the end of a web address that is also the end of a sentence; some prefer to leave a space between the address and the closing punctuation (www.uis.edu .). Our preference is to punctuate the end of the sentence, with no extra space. Questions or exclamations that end in a web address still require the closing. or. (You bought that at Amazon.com! How could you buy anything at Amazon.com?)
  • Lowercase “web” in the middle of a sentence.