Discuss Reuven Malter as the protagonist of The Chosen. How old is Reuven when he is introduced in Chapter 1? How do you relate to Reuven’s life, family, and friends? What characteristics stand out about the character in his introduction?Essay Topic 2
Describe and discuss the origins, history, rituals and beliefs of Orthodox and Hasidic Judaism. When did Hasidic Judaism first spread in Europe? Who led its establishment? Why is this history important to the themes and subject of The Chosen?Essay Topic 3
Describe and analyze the character of Danny Saunders in the narrative. How is Danny described when he is introduced in Chapter 1? What are Reuven’s first impressions of Danny? Why? How do these impressions evolve?Essay Topic 4
Discuss the characters of Mr. Savo, Billy Merritt and Mr. Galanter. What are Reuven’s impressions of each of these individuals? How do they each influence.
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He’s the coach for Reuven’s baseball team, and the guy who takes Reuven to the hospital when he gets glass in his eye. He’s a flat character, but not quite as flat as some of the other minor characters in The Chosen. He speaks almost exclusively in war metaphors and everyone wonders why he isn’t fighting in the war. Before he completely fades out of the story, we learn he’s not fighting because he has some mysterious defect.
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Clarence Earl Gideon is not a celebrity, however, he did receive certain recognition for his written in pencil petition, which he wrote while serving his sentence. He has spent most of his adult life in and out of different prisons, being sentenced for various crimes. In 1961 Gideon was arrested and sentenced to work five years in the penitentiary. This happened because in 1961 he broke into a pool hall in Panama City, Florida, with the intention to commit robbery. However, Gideon cannot be characterised as a true “professional criminal”.
The author himself admits in the book that Gideon was considered as “a perfectly harmless human being, rather likeable, but one tossed aside by life” . Lewis describes Gideon as a pitiable and “as the most wretched of men” rather than dangerous to people and inveterate criminal. Despite of the fact that Gideon committed various crimes, all of which he obviously admitted to, he did not reject his right to be treated properly in the court. He was aware of his right for the counsel, thus, he decided to fight for it and to gain what he should have according to the law. Anthony Lewis masterly depicts inexhaustible belief of a man that the right to have a counsel stated in the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution should be brought about.
Indeed, Gideon sought not for one right, but he sought for justice. Gideon’s quest proved that even destitute people, who have committed crimes, should be defended in the court by a lawyer. As it has been mentioned above Gideon was a frequent visitor at prisons, so he can be impartially considered a “repeat player” in the general sense of this expression. In his essay “Why the ‘Haves’ Come out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change” Marc Galanter states that repeat players (RP) are the ones, who are “engaged in many similar litigations over time” . Such parties may make or defend claims in the court more often than other ones, exactly for which they have received such a name as “repeat players”. However, in our case we cannot call Clarence Gideon a typical repeat player just because he often had to deal with court. In his essay Marc Galanter states that repeat players (RPs) are more “likely to be organizations”  than individuals, however, certain kind of individuals can also be a repeat player, for example “alcoholic derelict” . Indeed, so-called repeat players possess certain advantages as compared to other parties in the court. Because, they have participated in litigations several times, they already know what to do and how to behave in order to achieve certain goals. The same happened with Clarence Gideon. He cannot be considered as a regular criminal, because he knew his rights.
Usually people, who commit crimes are aware neither of their rights nor of the responsibilities. Things are different with Gideon, who knew that he had the right to have a lawyer to protect him. He announced it to the Supreme Court when he was asked if he was ready for the trial. Gideon’s answer was “no”, because he did not have a counsel and could not afford to have one as he was destitute. So, he had to defend himself in the court, and in spite of trying his best, he lost the battle and was convicted of a crime by the jury. But Gideon was not going to give up. He no more was a criminal, but a fighter for justice. He wrote a petition and was given a counsel and a chance to have a second trial. Obviously, Gideon cared just for himself, but his actions changed not only his life, but the whole legal system. It became clear, that the legal system stays “legal” not only for rich and privileged ones, but also for common and poor people. Clarence Gideon won the battle with the Supreme Court and as a prize he received a new trial, after which he was acquitted. Since then it became clear that having a counsel makes a great difference for any criminal than not having one.
In my opinion, it is impossible to give an answer that would have a single meaning to the question whether Gideon was a repeat player or not. According to Marc Galanter, repeat players have certain advantages, meaning that ‘haves’, who are sometimes represented by the repeat players, may “come out ahead” . The author writes, “RPs, by virtue of experience and expertise, are more likely to be able to discern which rules are likely to “penetrate” and which are likely to remain merely symbolic commitments” . Indeed, Gideon did find the law, which he needed in order to receive a lawyer, so he used it to his advantage. However, as it has been stated above, more often repeat players are organizations or rather wealthy people, and obviously Clarence Gideon can be described neither as organization nor as a rich man.
Speaking about the role of legal resources in the book, it is necessary to emphasize that they played an essential role not only in the book, but also in the real life by helping Gideon to avoid prison. In the book “Gideon’s Trumpet” the author Anthony Lewis indicates the stages of changing of the arguments used to hold a brief for Gideon by his counsel. He explores various theories, discusses the ways in which they were considered, assayed and either approved or rejected.
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Unter dem Begriff empfindsamer Stil versteht man eine musikalische Stilrichtung, die etwa ab den 1720er und 1730er Jahren die Barockmusik ablöste (in Norddeutschland zwischen 1740 und 1765). Seinen Höhepunkt erlebte der empfindsame Stil in den 1770er Jahren (Zusammenhänge mit dem Sturm und Drang ), als die Klassik schon etabliert war.Beschreibung
Der „Empfindsame Stil“ wird auch als „Empfindsamkeit“ bezeichnet. Diese Stilrichtung, die in der norddeutschen Instrumentalmusik in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts auftrat zeichnete sich durch die Betonung des Ausdrucks aus und war durch eine Vielzahl tief empfundener Emotionen innerhalb eines musikalischen Werkes gekennzeichnet. Die Ästhetik ist typisch für einen Zeitgeschmack in dem bewegende Gefühle nicht nur in der Kunst, sondern auch im Alltag Ausdruck verliehen wurde. Mit dieser „Sensibilität“ ging der Wunsch einher, eine Komposition in eine Aura von Einfachheit und Natürlichkeit zu hüllen. Das waren Eigenschaften, die in der philosophischen Auffassung der Aufklärung hoch geschätzt wurden. Die Komponisten wollten die Wirkung ihrer Musik verstärken, indem sie jedem Thema einen klar definierten, sogar übertrieben expressiven Charakter verleihen. Da der Effekt durch rasche Stimmungswechsel deutlich verstärkt wurde, wurden gegensätzliche Stimmungen nebeneinander gestellt. 
Die Tonsprache des empfindsamen Stils ist subjektiv gefühlsbetont, die Melodiephrasen sollen den Hörer unmittelbar und direkt berühren. Typische Merkmale sind lombardische Rhythmen. Vorhaltsbildungen und Seufzermelodik. Die Satztechnik wird einfacher, der Generalbass (Continuo) verliert an Bedeutung, und der harmonische Rhythmus wird verlangsamt.Einflüsse des Zeitgefühls
Ähnlich wie in der Architektur (Rokoko etwa 1720–1760) erfolgten eine Absage an die strenge Regelhaftigkeit der älteren, von Johann Sebastian Bach mitgeprägten Musizierpraxis und ein Stilwandel zu mehr Emotion – doch anders als im Rokoko auch mit einfacheren Mitteln. Diese Veränderungen fanden in den Ländern Westeuropas zeitgleich statt. 
Einfluss hatten auch die Musikinstrumente (Trend zu Flöte. Streichern und Cembalo ). Zu Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts wurde durch Domenico Scarlatti die Cembalosonate  zu einer Hauptgattung der Epoche.Vergleich galanter Stil – empfindsamer Stil
Der empfindsame Stil kann als Intensivierung des galanten Stils gelten. 
Der galante Stil entstand schon im Spätbarock in Abkehr vom strengen polyphonen Stil. Wichtigste Merkmale:
Der empfindsame Stil:
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