1. The role of computation in cognition
2. Marr's levels (barn owl experiment)
1. Computational theory: What is the goal of the computation, why is it appropriate, and what is the logic of the strategy by which it can be carried out?
2. Representation and algorithm: How can this computational theory be implemented? In particular, what is the representation for the input and output, and what is the algorithm for the transformation?
3. Hardware implementation: How can the representation and algorithm be realized physically?
3. The brain as a multidimensional space
4. Awareness and consciousness (Chapter 2)
5. Generalization (Shepard’s Law states that the further away in psych. Space, the less of a chance of generalization).
categorization: recognize objects as belonging to the same category, without losing information about their differences.
categorical perception as distortion of the representation space
7. Statistical nature of cognition (Mathematical averages of beauty)
8. Adaptation (page 77)
adaptation compensates for the statistical regularities of the world;
9. Cognitive maps
10. STM and LTM
14. Sentence processing (p. 301-303)
15. Semantic holism
Instead, they have meanings only when they hang out with other sentences.
Statements about the external world face the tribunal of experience not individually but only as a corporate body."
the transitional probability from one sound to next will be highest when the two sounds follow one another within a word, whereas transitional probabilities spanning a word boundary will be relatively low.
17. The frame problem
This presented the "frame problem": how to design a system that could, unlike poor C3, infer the persistence of nonchanges, but that could do so automatically — that is, without explicitly storing or accessing frame axioms for them.
18. Modes of reasoning
deduction, induction, abduction
Inductive reasoning performance will be better when the subjects are asked to judge a frequency instead of the probability of a single event.
19. Impediments to reason (conjunction fallacies [bank teller problem], overconfidence)
20. Creativity (preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, elaboration).
Preparation - It is almost impossible to have a good new idea without having first been immersed in a particular symbolic system or domain. Creative inventors know the ins and outs of their branch of technology, artists are familiar with the work of previous artists, scientists have learned whatever there is to know about their specialty.
One must also feel a certain unease about the state of the art in one's domain.
"Cognitive Psych Review." 123HelpMe.com. 25 Feb 2017
There has to be a sense of curiosity about some unresolved problem — a machine that could be improved, a disease that has to be cured, a theory that could be made simpler and more elegant.
Incubation - Some of the most important mental work in creative problems takes place below the threshold of consciousness, where problematic issues identified during the preceding stage remain active without the person controlling the process.
By allowing ideas to be associated with the contents of memory more or less at random, incubation also allows completely unexpected combinations to emerge. As long as one tries to formulate or solve a problem consciously, previous habits of mind will direct thoughts in rational, but predictable directions.
Requirements for Natural Selection: (evolution by natural selection assumes…)
Variability -there must be variability in genes and traits among t in population so there can be differences in structure behavior Selection pressuresTraits that work well w/ your environment enable you to survive. must be pressure for one kind of trait to be beneficial.Inheritance mechanismPassed down through heredity over the yearsMust give positive trait to children. Lamarckism(Darwin believed) creatures will grow to be more complex over time. Lamarckism (use-inheritance)- Darwin and considered Genetics laterEvolution by natural selection is random with no internal momentum; creates organisms suited only to current environment, not “more perfect” creatures
Vestigial structures and importance to Darwin
Personal vs. Inclusive Fitness
influence (3 components)
-conformity & groupthink – agreeing with a group to not be different
-compliance- changing behavior because someone convinced you to do it
-obedience & milgrim experiment- shock keeps going up allowed shocks. -group behavior
-social loafing- good when alone but lazy in group
-social facilitation-positive influence on others performance -ABC model of attitudes- attitude- emotional, behavior- our opinions change our actions, cognitive- beliefs and ideas about focus of attitude. -what factors create attitude
-forms of learning: direct contact, direct instruction, interaction with others, vicarious conditioning -successful persuasion source(good messeanger) message needs to be clear, correct target audience -cognitive dissonance: not acting like we say were gonna
-social categorization: know that an advantage = formation of schema & disadvantage = stereotyping & wrong assumptions -attributes (2 kinds): be able to apply in example
-fundamental attribution error: example
-know difference between prejudice & discrimination
-prejudice is learned because of social cognitive theory- attitudes formed by social influence -scapegoating: members of the out group to blame
-stereotype vulnerability: women & mathematics example
-interpersonal attraction: physical attraction, proximity- repeated exposure, similiarities -sternberg’s different kinds of love- romantic love compassionate love consummate love -aggression & Stanford prison experiment: fed into role, took social role serious -kitty Genovese case
-innocent bystanders: when # of bystanders increase, altruism decreases. Diuffusion of responsibility, mood. gender, appearance -difference between primary(present at birth) & secondary sex characteristics(gained through puberty) -gender identity disorder- tranys -how do we form gender beliefs in a more positive way?
-androgyny: -male and female traits
-how do genders differ socially?
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By: Mike • Essay • 1,458 Words • March 10, 2010 • 3,614 Views
12 Angry Men-Social Psych Review
One Belligerent Room
There are few examples of group dynamics as complete and realistic as the film “Twelve Angry Men”. Recently I was required to view this film and had at first great reservations about its value as an educational tool, but soon after the opening credits rolled by and the deliberations began to take place I was caught up in the story. This film was not only entertaining, but it also serves as a great example of many of the theories and aspects of social psychology. Including too many concepts to name, the film touched on several very important theories: process loss in group decisions, groupthink, the fatal attribution error (FAE), normative social influence, and social norms.
One of the first concepts to be seen in the film was process loss in group decisions. Process loss is any part of group functioning that will inhibit good problem solving. This will occur when a group follows the leadership of one of its lesser informed members, much like the group of men following the leadership of the head juror; although he was not the most qualified member of the group he was in charge of explaining their duties to the others. It could also be argued that the most active jurors for prosecution were less qualified leaders as well. As quickly as one man could say it was an open and shut case all the other jurors had followed his lead and agreed. Another cause of process loss seen in the movie was the failure to share relevant information. For the opening stage of deliberations Mr. Davis says nothing of the doubts and theories he has on why the boy is innocent; the other jurors share the information that leads them to believe he is guilty and all come to the conclusion that he should be convicted. This is much like what happened in the 1985 study conducted by Stasser and Titus where shared facts on a candidate’s qualifications led the voters to find that candidate more appealing than when they had several differing facts on his qualifications and shortcomings. Another factor of this study that parallels the film is that over time the facts unknown to the entire group were eventually made known; Mr. Davis eventually shares his insight with the group and causes the others to question their certainty.
A very important aspect of group interactions closely related to process loss is groupthink. It is actually a cause of process loss where the cohesiveness of the group becomes more important to its members than actually considering the facts. This is incredibly applicable to the characters in the film because the very conditions that lead to groupthink are those that characterize a jury; the group must be cohesive, isolated, high stress and have obvious and strong leadership. This phenomenon leads to the censorship of members and the pressure to conform as we see in the early stages of the deliberation process in the film. The film also addresses one of the main ways to combat group think; they utilize a secret ballot and allow the jurors to remain anonymous. The usefulness of these techniques to reduce groupthink are immediately evident in the film; while all others are watching the vote remains 11-1 and when a secret ballot is utilized the vote becomes only 10-2 in favor of conviction.
After the jurors realize the deliberations are going to take longer than first thought, they enter into a stage of discussion where another key aspect of social psychology becomes evident. The fundamental attribution error occurs when persons focus too much on the internal, dispositional causes of actions and underestimate the effect of the situation on behavior. It is quite clear who is making the fundamental attribution error when the jurors begin talking about the defendant and his background. One of the jurors for prosecution stated that “children from the slums (the suspect’s home) were nothing but potential menaces to society” and another simply called his type liars; they also brought up his past record. They are clearly attacking this man’s character and stating that the situation was not incredibly important. Even if the evidence does not necessarily add up the man is still a liar and his type does not deserve to be free. Only a few jurors fight this error of judgment and remind the others that his rough upbringing may have had something to do with his past convictions and that this situation did not necessarily warrant violence toward his father.
Another aspect of social psychology that is demonstrated by the characters in the film is that of social roles and the need to follow them. Social norms are rules that explain how persons are expected to behave in certain situations; if a social norm is rebelled against the results are often extreme. This is seen incredibly easily in how well the words of the jurors mirror the actions of participants in a 1951 study by Schacter. In the psychological study
Psychology Final - Lessons 1 - 8
Ivan Pavlov (1849 to 1936), a Russian psychologist, is the founding father of the behaviorist school. The behaviorist perspective focuses on observable behaviors rather than mental processes, such as thinking and consciousness. The underlying principle of behavior is and is all behaviorisms, both adaptive and now adaptive, is acquired through learning. One study that Pavlov undertook was that digestive pattern of dogs when he came across an interesting phenomenon. Pavlov learned during the study that the dogs would salivate at the sound of keys are being jingled as the unlocked the doors to the rooms where they were being kept in. John B. Watson (1878 to 1958) is another pioneer in the field of behaviorism, who read of Pavlov's work with dogs and decided to expand on his theories. Watson believed that psychology should not concern itself with the mind or consciousness but rather with observable behaviors. Building on Pavlov's early work Watson applied the concept of stimulus response theory to laboratory experiments in a strictly controlled environment using animals and then later, humans.
B.F. Skinner, often referred to as the greatest contemporary psychologist, continued the work of behaviorism. Skinner's approach to psychology was that he believed that all behavior changes will continue to change as a result of its consequences. Skinner also believed that environmental consequences shape human behavior rather than free will. One way that he applied his theories was by treating patients with schizophrenia. In his treatment of schizophrenia patients he was able to get them to speak after being mute for many years. Skinner also applied his theories by improving safety and manufacturing plants, also in teaching basic skills to mentally retarded people. B.F. Skinner's principles can be seen in amusement parks or circuses, for their trainers have surely used Skinner's techniques to teach the animals tricks.
Humanistic psychology concentrates predominantly on the positive view of human nature. There were many critics who questioned both the psychodynamic and behaviorist perspectives. Psychologists found that the behaviorist approach left no room for personal freedom and that the approach was cold and unappealing. Many revolted against the notion that environment determined all behavior. Critics of behaviorist perspective believed it was negative, avoided all unique and positive qualities of the human spirit, such as creativity and love. As a result of the many criticisms the sub field of humanistic psychology was born. Humanist often referred to themselves as the "third force of psychology" because of their alternative approach to behaviorist and psychodynamic perspectives. Carl Rogers (1902 to 1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908 to 1970) were key humanists who focused on the cornerstones of humanistic psychology; the aspects of personal freedom and choice. The humanist perspective focus is on the understanding that each person is a unique individual who has the ability to reach his or her fullest potential. The humanists' major contributions to the field have been to change the views of human nature and to develop a variety of psychotherapeutic techniques.
The behaviorist perspective focuses on human behavior. The humanistic perspective focuses on each human as an individual person, believing that each person is unique. While behaviorists believe that environment plays a role in human behavior, those that believe in the humanistic approach believe that environment in fact does not play a role. If those who believe in the humanistic approach believe that each person is a unique individual, then why can they not believe that each person's behavior can be attributed to each unique environment? Humanists' believes that the behaviorist approach is negative and falls short by way of studying the unique qualities in a person, such as creativity or love. When in fact that is where human behavior lies. Each person is an individual, and each person is unique, this is something our parents try endlessly to make us understand. Knowing that, that is indeed true, then if a person falls in love and suddenly something should happen to that person, by way of death or otherwise, the person's behavior changes. Not only did the environment play a part in the person's behavior but the behavior was contributed by that person being in love and losing the one they love. Another way to look at is like this. You are a teenager who gets a new puppy. At first glance you fall immediately in love with everything around that puppy. And your behavior of how you are with other's concerning that puppy is portrayed. Since the puppy was brought into your world or environment, your behavior went from perhaps being a sad lonely individual, to seeing things in a new light and being happy. If that puppy were taken from you or removed from your environment; you would go back to the person you were before the puppy was brought into your world. Now not everyone is a dog lover, so this type of behavior will not be the same for everyone. Why? Because each person is unique and each person's behavior is unique to each situation, thereby creating a unique human behavior that is brought on by environment changes.
Chapter 16 of the provided reading material is entitled, Social Psychology. One behavior that is touched upon is altruism. They define altruism as a voluntary performed behavior that will benefit another person with no anticipation of reward. There are some theorists who believe that altruism is hard to determine because there is no way to truly know if the person was not rewarded for her or her actions. The receipt of the reward might not always be obvious. The reward could be extrinsic (such as receiving a medal of honor for an act) or intrinsic (feeling good about yourself). Many researchers believe that the only genuine form of altruism might be when a soldier was to cover a comrade to protect them from shrapnel or a grenade. In my opinion altruism would fall under both humanistic and behaviorist theories. Remember that the humanist perspective focuses on each person as an individual that is unique. While the behaviorist perspective focuses on human behavior. Altruism is a form of both. The