Shakespearean words and phrases have had a profound influence on the English language. But Shakespeare's plays have also served as important sources of adaptation. Many Shakespearean plays have been adapted to film, for example, ranging from one-reel films of the silent era to the famous adaptations by Japanese director Kurosawa Akira. Other well-known—albeit loose—adaptations include the Disney film The Lion King (1994, based on Hamlet ), Jane Smiley’s Pulitzer-winning novel A Thousand Acres (1991, based on King Lear ), and Tom Stoppard’s absurdist play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead (1990, based on Hamlet ). (The latter two have themselves spawned filmic adaptations).
From a theoretical perspective, the question of adapting Shakespearean plays is intriguing: given that Shakespeare himself adapted a large portion of his plots from previous material, what exactly is being adapted in the new adaptations? Does the new work adapt the plot, the characters, or perhaps something more essential? As the answer will differ from work to work, the reader is invited to consider the following titles.Adaptations of Macbeth
Javier Marias, A Heart So White[Corazon tan blanco]. The New Directions Edition on Amazon .
Throne of Blood[Kumonosu-jo]. Dir. Kurosawa Akira.The Criterion Collection release on Amazon .How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/macbeth/study-guide/shakespearean-adaptations in MLA Format
Little, Jennifer. Kuriyama, Taro ed. "Macbeth Shakespearean Adaptations". GradeSaver, 23 June 2008 Web. Cite this page
It's always the chest of the other person we lean back against for support, we only really feel supported or backed up when, as the latter verb itself indicates, there's someone behind us, someone we perhaps cannot even see and who covers our back with their chest, so close it almost brushes our back and in the end always does, and at times, that someone places a hand on our shoulder, a hand to calm us and also to hold us. That's how most married people and most couples sleep or think they sleep, the two turn to the same side when they say goodnight, so that one has his or her back to the other throughout the whole night, when he or she wakes up startled from a nightmare, or is unable to get to sleep, or is suffering from a fever or feels alone and abandoned in the darkness, they have only to turn round and see before them the face of the person protecting them, the person who will let themselves be kissed on any part of the face that is kissable (nose, eyes and mouth; chin, forehead and cheeks, the whole face) or perhaps, half-asleep, will place a hand on their shoulder to calm them, or to hold them, or even to cling to them.
Listening is the most dangerous thing of all, listening means knowing, finding out about something and knowing what’s going on, our ears don’t have lids that can instinctively close against the words uttered, they can’t hide from what they sense they’re about to hear, it’s always too late.
Oscar Sambrano Urdaneta and Rafael Caldera in 1997]
name = Javier Marías
birthdate = Birth date|1951|9|20
birthplace = Madrid
occupation = Novelist. Translator. Columnist
genre = Novel. Short Story
notableworks = "All Souls", "A Heart So White", "Tomorrow In The Battle Think On Me", "Your Face Tomorrow"
influences = William Shakespeare. Miguel de Cervantes. Laurence Sterne. Henry James. Joseph Conrad. Marcel Proust. Vladimir Nabokov. William Faulkner. Jorge Luis Borges. Thomas Bernhard. Juan Benet
website = http://www.javiermarias.es
Javier Marías (born September 20 1951. in Madrid ) is a Spanish novelist. He is also a translator and columnist.
Javier Marías was born in Madrid. His father was the philosopher Julián Marías. who was briefly imprisoned and then banned from teaching for opposing Franco (the father of the protagonist of "Your Face Tomorrow" was given a similar biography). Parts of his childhood were spent in the United States, where his father spent time teaching at various institutions, including Yale University and Wellesley College. His mother died when Javier was 26 years old. Marías's first literary employment consisted in translating Dracula scripts for his maternal uncle, Jesús Franco. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f3a1179e-8371-11dc-b042-0000779fd2ac.html Hardworking King of Redonda ] . ] [ [http://www.ndpublishing.com/authors/marias.html New Directions Publishing Corp biography ] . ] He was educated at the "Colegio Estudio" in Madrid.
Marías wrote his first novel, "Los dominios del lobo" ("The Dominions of the Wolf"), at the age of 17, after running away to Paris. His second novel, "Travesía del horizonte" ("Voyage Along the Horizon"), was an adventure story about an expedition to Antarctica. After attending the Complutense University of Madrid. Marías turned his attention to translating English novels into Spanish. His translations include work by Updike. Hardy. Conrad. Nabokov. Faulkner. Kipling. James. Stevenson. Browne. and Shakespeare. In 1979 he won the Spanish national award for translation for his version of Sterne's " Tristram Shandy ". Between 1983 and 1985 he lectured in Spanish literature and translation at the University of Oxford .
In 1986 Marías published "El hombre sentimental" ("The Man of Feeling"), and in 1988 published "Todas las almas" ("All Souls"), which was set at Oxford University. In 1996; the Spanish film director Gracia Querejeta released "El Último viaje de Robert Rylands", adapted from "Todas las almas".
His 1992 novel "Corazón tan blanco" was a great commercial and critical success and for its English version "A Heart So White", translated by Margaret Jull Costa. Marías and Costa were joint winners of the 1997 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award .
The protagonists of the novels written since 1986 are all interpreters or translators of one kind or another. Of these protagonists, Marías has written, "They are people who are renouncing their own voices." [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,2763,1478688,00.html?gusrc=rss Looking for Luisa ] . ]
In 2002 Marías published "Tu rostro mañana 1. Fiebre y lanza" ("Your Face Tomorrow 1: Fever and Spear"), the first part of a trilogy which forms his most ambitious literary project. The second volume, "Tu rostro mañana 2. Baile y sueño" ("Your Face Tomorrow 2: Dance and Dream"), was published in 2004. On May 25, 2007, Marías announced the completion of the final instalment, entitled "Tu rostro mañana 3. Veneno y sombra y adiós". It was released on September 24, 2007.
Marías's novel, "Todas las almas" ("All Souls"), included a portrayal of the poet John Gawsworth. who was also the third King of Redonda. Although the fate of this monarchy after the death of Gawsworth is contested, the portrayal by Marías so touched the "reigning" king, Jon Wynne-Tyson, that he abdicated and left the throne to Marías in 1997. This course of events was chronicled in his "false novel," "Dark Back of Time". The book was inspired by the reception of "Todas las almas" by many people who, falsely according to Marías, believed they were the source of the characters in "Todas las almas". Since "taking the throne" of Redonda. Marías has begun a publishing imprint named "Reino de Redonda" ("Kingdom of Redonda").
Marías has conferred titles during his reign, including upon Pedro Almodóvar (Duke of Trémula), António Lobo Antunes (Duke of Cocodrilos), John Ashbery (Duke of Convexo), Pierre Bourdieu (Duke of Desarraigo), William Boyd (Duke of Brazzaville), (Duke of Miranda), A. S. Byatt (Duchess of Morpho Eugenia), Guillermo Cabrera Infante (Duke of Tigres), Pietro Citati (Duke of Remonstranza), Francis Ford Coppola (Duke of Megalópolis), Agustín Díaz Yanes (Duke of Michelín), Roger Dobson (Duke of Bridaespuela), Frank Gehry (Duke of Nervión), Francis Haskell (Duke of Sommariva), Eduardo Mendoza (Duke of Isla Larga), Ian Michael (Duke of Bernal), Arturo Pérez-Reverte (Duke of Corso), (Duke of Parezzo), Sir Peter Russell (Duke of Plazatoro), Fernando Savater (Duke of Caronte), W. G. Sebald (Duke of Vértigo), (Duke of Malmundo), and upon Juan Villoro (Duke of Nochevieja).
In addition, Marías created a literary prize, to be judged by the dukes and duchesses. In addition to prize money, the winner receives a duchy. Winners: 2001 John Maxwell Coetzee (Duke of Deshonra); 2002 John H. Elliott (Duke of Simancas); 2003 Claudio Magris (Duke of Segunda Mano); 2004 Eric Rohmer (Duke of Olalla); 2005 Alice Munro (Duchess of Ontario); 2006 Ray Bradbury (Duke of Diente de León); 2007 George Steiner (Duke of Girona). [ [http://www.quintadimension.com/televicio/index.php?id=131 Historia del Reino de Redonda ]. by Pablo Martín Cerone. es icon ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,2763,1478688,00.html?gusrc=rss Looking for Luisa ] . ] [ [http://www.javiermarias.es/REDONDIANA/elespejodelmar.html http://www.javiermarias.es/REDONDIANA/elespejodelmar.html ] . ] [ [http://www.javiermarias.es/2007/05/fallo-del-vii-premio-reino-de-redonda.html http://www.javiermarias.es/2007/05/fallo-del-vii-premio-reino-de-redonda.html ] . ]
Marías operates a small publishing house under the name of "Reino de Redonda". He also writes a weekly column in "El País". An English version of his column "La Zona Fantasma" is included in the monthly magazine "The Believer".
Marías was elected to seat R of the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy) in 2006. At his investiture in 2008 he agreed with Robert Louis Stevenson that the work of novelists is "pretty childish," but also argued that it is impossible to narrate real events, and that “you can only fully tell stories about what has never happened, the invented and imagined.” [ [http://www.surinenglish.com/noticias.php?Noticia=12649 Javier Marias joins Spanish Royal Academy ] . ]
*"Los dominios del lobo" (1971)
*"Travesía del horizonte" ("Voyage Along the Horizon", 1972)
*"El monarca del tiempo" (1978)
*"El siglo" (1982)
*"El hombre sentimental" ("The Man of Feeling", 1986)
*"Todas las almas" ("All Souls", 1989)
*"Corazón tan blanco" ("A Heart So White", 1992)
*"Vidas escritas" ("Written Lives", 1992)
*"Mañana en la batalla piensa en mí" ("Tomorrow in the Battle Think On Me", 1994)
*"Cuando fui mortal" ("When I Was Mortal" 1996)
*"Negra espalda del tiempo" ("Dark Back of Time", 1998)
*"Tu rostro mañana 1. Fiebre y lanza" ("Your Face Tomorrow 1: Fever and Spear", 2002)
*"Tu rostro mañana 2. Baile y sueño" ("Your Face Tomorrow 2: Dance and Dream", 2004)
*"Tu rostro mañana 3. Veneno y sombra y adiós" (2007)
All English translations by Margaret Jull Costa and published by New Directions unless otherwise indicated:
*"All Souls" (1992)
*"A Heart So White" (1995)
*"Tomorrow in the Battle Think On Me" (1996)
*"When I Was Mortal" (1999)
*"Dark Back of Time" (translated by Esther Allen, 2001)
*"The Man of Feeling" (2003)
*"Your Face Tomorrow 1: Fever and Spear" (2004)
*"Voyage Along the Horizon" (translated by Kristina Cordero and published by MacSweeney's, 2006)
*"Written Lives" (2006)
*"Your Face Tomorrow 2: Dance and Dream" (2006)
*Berg, Karen, "Javier Marías's Postmodern Praxis: Humor and Interplay between Reality and Fiction in his Novels and Essays" (2008)
* [http://www.javiermarias.es Unofficial web page ] .
* [http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=e7277acd-6eb6-44d8-95aa-801027ada5d9 I've totally been there, dude ]. June 30, 2008.
* [http://www.iht.com/bin/printfriendly.php?id=12311906 The letters of men of letters ]. April 24, 2008.
* [http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=857ed27a-0388-458b-a175-462fcbe42b67 In my life ]. March 21, 2008.
* [http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=6b83c354-df1a-4bb7-b3c5-93d22bbed018 We, the oftentimes wrong ]. January 1, 2008.
* [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f3a1179e-8371-11dc-b042-0000779fd2ac.html Hardworking King of Redonda ]. October 26, 2007.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/hardtalk/4784132.stm HardTalk Extra: Javier Marías ]. March 3, 2006.
* [http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/07/10/opinion/edmarias.php Feeling London's bombs in Madrid ]. July 11, 2005.
* [http://books.guardian.co.uk/departments/generalfiction/story/0,,1478815,00.html Betrayal of a blood brother ]. May 8, 2005.
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,2763,1478688,00.html?gusrc=rss Looking for Luisa ]. May 7, 2005.
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/11/opinion/11marias.html?_r=1&oref=slogin How to remember, how to forget ]. September 11, 2004.
* [http://www.barcelonareview.com/15/e_jm.htm Fewer Scruples ]. November 1999.
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The best of Javier Marías – “A Heart So White”
Author Javier Marías
English Title A Heart So White
Original Title Corazón tan blanco (1992)
Original Language Spanish
Translator Margaret Jull Costa
If you have a fondness for the short sentence, Javier Marías is a writer to convince you of the virtues of the very long one. This novel was first published in English in 1995, and won the Dublin IMPAC award in 1997. Now, along with three other Marías books, it is appearing as a Penguin Modern Classic. It was the first of his novels to bear what has since become his signature style: sentences which spool down the page, slipping between times and tenses, story and speculation, experience and memory.
The writing is carefully calibrated to disrupt the reader’s sense of certainty. A shot rings out on the first page of the book, a suicide which has become a dark family secret. The narrator, Juan, gradually uncovers the story behind it, and along the way he meditates on whether we can really know other people, and more startlingly whether we really want to.
Marías’s prose is also subtly repetitive—snatches of thought, dialogue and observation appear again and again, as if acting out the mysterious way in which fragments of the past inflect the present. Juan is an interpreter by trade and one of the joys of the book is the supple meaning wrung from every word and gesture. But interpretation poses a philosophical question too: in trying to understand our lives and the lives of others, do we not embroil ourselves in falsehood?
This is classic Marías and it’s a classic translation. Margaret Jull Costa, who has been working with Marías since the early 1990s, is in the premier league of translators from Spanish, and she renders these complex sentences in elegant and mellifluous English.
A Heart So WhitePenguin, August 2ndMore From The Author
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
'Repetitions are not only necessary, they are indispensable to this narrative - without repetitions there would simply be no narrative'. Do you find this a helpful observation on Corazón tan blanco?
Javier Marías has come to be recognised as one of the most significant and innovative figures in contemporary literature; his ability to convey the complexities of human behaviour and experience with such precision has undoubtedly contributed to his success, and established him among the foremost writers of the modern day. By incorporating his own writing style, Marías skilfully blends elements of fantasy, reality and memory to explore a range of universal themes that resonate within the reader's mind. This is evident in Corazón tan blanco, where Marías experiments with form and style in order to create parallels between unrelated events of the past and present, and invite the reader to decipher their underlying significance in the narrative. In some ways, therefore, the novel could be considered a detective story, in which the reader attempts to discern the relevance of Juan's meanderings and discover points of intersection that may explain the death of Ranz's former wife described in the first page of the book. One prominent feature in the novel is repetition, which seems to largely influence the direction of content throughout and shape or give rise to the overriding themes of marriage, death, knowledge and trust. By closely examining the various repetitions that take place in relation to the purpose they appear to serve, one can gain a greater understanding of their importance in the text and thus decide to what extent they are indispensable to the narrative as a whole.
Firstly, it would be useful to consider Marías's overall writing style and his literary influences, as this will provide a framework for analysing repetition in the book and elucidate his intentions in employing a distinctive form of narration. Marías has frequently asserted that he lacks a concrete objective when writing, and that he has no clear idea as to what the plot of his novels will entail. Rather than having a pre-determined map of form, structure and content to guide him as he writes like many authors, he states 'yo trabajo más bien con brújala' [1 ]. preferring to be steered by a compass that allows creative thinking along the way. An element of continual uncertainty thus drives his writing, enabling him to discover and reflect on aspects of reality that are unfamiliar to him, 'Sólo en la escritura descubre [el escritor] qui vio cosas que no sabía que vio hasta ese momento'. [2 ] The progression of his novels hence mirrors his thought process as he writes, and inevitably introduces a digressive style of narration, or what Marías refers to as 'la errabundia'. This technique was commonly used by writers who influenced Marías, such as Laurence Sterne, Juan Benet and Marcel Proust, whose works he explains were characterised by 'la divagación, la digresión, el inciso'. [3 ] Marías asserts that the digressions constitute the essence of their novels, allowing the writers to illustrate their imaginative potential and ability to unify seemingly arbitrary elements in the narrative. In addition, he states that he does not retrospectively revise his works whilst writing, since it is impossible to alter events of the past in reality. As a result, he is forced to develop associations between different parts of the text and ensure they are coherently linked in the overall narrative. One way of achieving such an effect is through repetition, which is one of the most important characteristics of his writing and appears to perform multiple functions throughout the novel.
It is now possible to analyse the main repetitions in Corazón tan blanco whilst taking into account Marías's concept of 'la errabundia' and his writing technique. One effect of repetition in the narrative is to echo past events and prefigure future occurrences. This can firstly be observed on a linguistic level, where the repetition of certain words and phrases appears to foreshadow the revelation of Ranz's secret. The verb 'saber' is perhaps the most significant, and its use in the first sentence of the novel by the narrator 'no he querido saber, pero he sabido. ' introduces the theme of knowing and not knowing, which to a large extent underlies the main occurrences of the book. The reader gradually establishes that Juan lacks the typical qualities associated with a conventional protagonist; he passively observes rather than acts, preferring to be ignorant of his past rather than knowing the potentially harmful truth. As Marías explains, the narrators of his books are usually 'voces que cuentan y persuaden y reflexionan pero rara vez intervienen en lo que pasó'. [4 ] Juan's unwillingness to know about the past and act is evident throughout the narrative, and reinforced by the repetition of 'saber' at various stages of the text. After learning from Custardoy, for example, that Ranz had been married three times and that the second wife, Teresa, had in fact committed suicide, Juan echoes the first line of the text by stating, 'Es difícil saber si uno quería saber o seguir ignorando algo una vez que ya lo sabe' (p. 137). In addition, the notion of knowing by chance is reiterated during the scene with Villalobos, when he reveals more information about Ranz's first wife which Juan reluctantly listens to, 'Y entonces Villalobos siguió contando lo que no he querido saber, pero he sabido' (p. 247). The word 'saber' is therefore repeated to accentuate the often accidental ways by which one discovers information, and emphasise the narrator's wish to ignore aspects of reality rather than consciously attempt to decipher them. However, the repetition of 'saber' also serves to foreshadow Ranz's secret revealed in the penultimate chapter, since Teresa's suicide was ultimately the result of 'knowing' his first wife was murdered to be with her, and 'knowing' that she had unintentionally instigated it. A parallel is thus created between Juan's experiences of knowing and Ranz's confession when he echoes the narrator's words during his conversation with Luisa, 'Teresa tal vez no quiso saber, o mejor dicho no habría querido' (p.267). Ranz therefore decides to withhold information about his previous wives to Juana, as he is aware that knowledge can have dangerous, and even fatal consequences. Furthermore, 'saber' is repeated to emphasise Juan's doubts about the objectivity of knowledge, and his suspicions and uncertainty of those surrounding by him; he asserts 'Nada puede saberse nunca', a thought which Ranz also expresses on Juan's wedding day, 'Ni siquiera nostoros lo sabemos todo sobre nosotros, ni por separado antes ni juntos ahora' (p. 150).
The first event which is repeated and referred to several times in the narrative is the Havana scene during Juan and Luisa's honeymoon, when they overhear a conversation between a Spanish man, Guillermo, and a Cuban woman, Miriam. The incident serves to foreshadow Ranz's revelation in the penultimate chapter by providing several indications as to what the secret might entail. Firstly, both Juan and Luisa learn that Guillermo is having an extramarital affair with Miriam, and that she would like him to murder his wife or threatens to kill herself, 'Si no la matas me mato yo. Tendrás una muerta, o ella o yo' (p. 51). The detail in which the scene is recounted highlights its importance in the narrative, and forces the reader to question the possibility of a parallel between the story of Miriam and Ranz's past. Thus, whilst the circumstances surrounding Teresa's death are unknown at this point, the incident introduces elements that the reader suspects might be connected to her suicide: an affair, murder and instigation (consciously in the case of Miriam). In addition, the 'presentimientos de desastre' which Juan feels since his wedding day are echoed upon seeing Luisa lying ill, and contribute to the forewarning effect of the scene. Grohmann explains that the phrase is repeated four times in the narrative, and words such as 'malestar' and 'malestares' are also frequently used, slowly preparing the reader for an impending tragedy and creating a sense of sinister foreboding. [5 ] The atmosphere of unease is further heightened by the similarities between Teresa after her suicide in the initial chapter and Luisa's condition in the hotel room; the narrator places particular emphasis on the mirrors present in both scenes, as well as the brassières, towels and sweat, suggesting that Luisa might share the same fate as Teresa. This point of view is reinforced by Cuñado, who notes that such parallels establish 'desde el comienzo del relato una identificación entre el funesto pasado conyugal del padre y la futura vida de pareja del hijo'. [6 ]
The narrator also includes a description of the cigarette ashes burning the sheets of the bed, and appears to be fascinated by the effects it creates. Whilst the detail seems inconsequential and perhaps unnecessary, it acquires deeper symbolic value through its repetition in different contexts: Juan mentions the cigarette ashes on Berta's bed, and then more significantly, Ranz describes the way he allowed ashes to set fire to the bed and kill Gloria, his first wife. Repetition therefore invites the reader to scrutinise the relevance of a seemingly trivial element in the narrative, and echoes Ranz's crime which took place in Cuba years before; the internal relationship between the Havana incident and Ranz's murder is solidified by the repetition of the phrase, 'Vi cómo empezaba a hacer un agujero orlado de lumbre sobre la sábana' (p. 198). The references to Cuba, in terms of the setting of the Havana scene and the song sung by Miriam, are also important since they foreshadow the location of the murder committed by Ranz. In addition, there appears to be clear parallels between the 'extraordinario extranjero' of the song and Ranz, in that both are successful men who have caused the death of a Cuban girl soon after their wedding nights, a similarity that is cemented by the repetition of the song whilst Ranz unveils his secret. Cuba is, in fact, referred to at multiple points in the narrative, for example, during conversation with the Spanish couple in New York, and when Villalobos associates a Cuban film he saw with the death of Gloria, which further hints at the importance of the island in the context of Ranz's past, and subtly reveals the setting of the crime.
A second effect of repetition is to unify elements of the narrative, and to create coherent links between the unrelated digressions in the novel. One theme that gains significance through this form of repetition is matrimony. Juan's unease with marriage stems from his belief that it represents an end of his individual identity and the beginning of a shared life; he explains that he felt 'una desagradable sensación de llegada' (p. 18) at his wedding, and subsequently began to have 'presentimientos de desastre'. Juan's This is further highlighted by the narrator's use of the verb 'contraer', equating marriage with an acute illness that is 'contracted'. Furthermore, the repetition of 'cambio de estado' illustrates the significant impact marriage has had on his life, and the way it has changed his 'apreciación del mundo' (p. 17). Juan explains that his discomfort partly arises from the absence of a 'futuro abstracto'; he believes that a future of endless possibilities and freedom is overshadowed by the predictability of marriage, and that he will be forced to lead a mundane existence as a result. The words 'futuro abstracto' are repeated throughout the narrative, for example, in relation to Juan's teenage years ('sobre todo me iba contento pensando en el futuro abstracto. '), but primarily serve to link the narrator's marriage anxieties with Ranz's allusion to the loss of Gloria's concrete and abstract future following her murder.
The reader also learns that the root of Juan's anxiety about marriage lies in his belief that it is 'una institución narrativa', since it blurs the distinction between private and shared thoughts and obliges couples to disclose secrets to one another. The pillow is referred to as the site of such exchanges, and Juan explains that he repeatedly alludes to the pillow in a metaphorical sense, as there are two pillows in reality, but its use in the singular emphasises the oneness of a couples' life after marriage. However, the pillow generates different connotations in other situations recounted in the narrative: it is associated with illness during childhood, silent observation as an adult, the lonely lives of Berta and Bill in New York, and finally Teresa, when she cries burying her head in the pillow upon discovering Ranz's secret. [7 ] It also acquires a sinister meaning when the narrator speculates on the murder scene, and considers the pillow a weapon and the site of the death. The repetition of the pillow motif therefore serves to create a sense of unity between the various observations and experiences of Juan, contribute to the paralleled structure of the narrative and configure the theme of matrimony.
Another element that is repeated at different stages of the narrative and appears to link unrelated events is the scene from Macbeth. The play is initially referred to during the interpreting scene when the British politician quotes Lady Macbeth, 'Los dormidos, y los muertos, no son sino como pinturas' (p. 76), a phrase that is repeated in parenthesis during Ranz's confession when he describes Teresa's inadvertent instigation. Ranz then echoes the quote as he looks at Gloria before the murder and states, 'No era muy distinta de una muerta, no era muy distinta de un cuadro' (p. 203). The insertion of the quote at different points in the narrative creates internal symmetries within the novel and reinforces its circular structure, whilst also giving rise to the theme of death that is developed throughout. In addition, the repeated references to Macbeth, namely Act II scene 2 described in the fifth chapter, allows the narrator to explore the consequences of knowledge. Juan explains that Lady Macbeth is guilty as a result of her knowledge of the murder committed by Macbeth (he tells her 'I have done the deed'), as opposed to her instigation of it; he therefore believes that the mere act of listening can render a person an accomplice to a crime, 'Escuchar es lo más peligroso, es saber, es estar enterado y estar al tanto. ' (p. 80). A parallel hence develops between Lady Macbeth and Teresa, since both were instigators whose words had a fateful outcome, a link that is underpinned by the repetition of the word 'deed' seventeen times in the novel. [8 ]
The theme of instigation also surfaces during the conversation between the two politicians 'todo el mundo obliga a todo el mundo' (p. 75), which resonates with Macbeth's deed and is repeated by Juan in the midst of Ranz's speech when he explains how Gloria obliged him to love her. The repetition of certain images, such as the hand on someone's shoulder, whispering in the ear or standing behind a person's back, further develop the theme of instigation and suggests that actions perceived to be harmless can provoke a sinister act. This in turn echoes Teresa's unintentional instigation and foreshadows Ranz's murder, whilst at the same time emphasising the ambiguity of words and actions. In addition, the narrator discusses the ambiguity and possible signification of the phrase from Macbeth, 'Mis manos son de tu color; pero me avergüenzo de llevar un corazón tan blanco', and repeats the passage during Ranz's revelation, further highlighting the parallel between Lady Macbeth and Teresa in terms of their instigation of a murder. Marías explains that it is precisely because of the deliberate uncertainty and 'comprensibilidad e ininteligibilidad simultáneas' [9 ] of 'corazón tan blanco' that he chose it as the title of the book. The ambivalence of the phrase heightens its impact in the narrative by creating a sense of intrigue, inviting the reader to identify Lady Macbeth with other characters of the book, although perhaps to a lesser degree: Luisa instigates Ranz to reveal the details of his first marriage, she also instigates Juan to continue mistranslating the politician's words through her subtle gestures, and Juan himself appears to have a 'corazón tan blanco', in that he is both coward and innocent for having no desire to find out his father's secret. [10 ] Thus, whilst the Macbeth scene initially appears to be unrelated to the wider narrative, it obtains a deeper significance through repetition, and enables the reader to gain a more profound insight into the themes of instigation, death and knowledge.
Having considered some of the repetitions in the novel, the extent to which they are indispensable to the book can now be overviewed. As discussed previously, Marías writes his novels without having a detailed map of its exact content or structure, and prefers to digress with a compass. Repetition therefore performs an important binding function, ensuring that the narrative is coherent and united by an underlying structure. It also serves to echo previous parts of the text and foreshadow future occurrences, provoking the reader to piece together unrelated anecdotes and observations from varying temporal periods. In addition, in a similar way to Proust, Marías develops the meaning of his motifs and symbols by repeating them in different contexts, acquiring added significations as the text progresses. On repetition in the novel, Marías states 'Every new appearance illuminates the previous, the sentences work backwards, not only forwards.' [11 ] Thus, as well as unifying the narrative, repetitions also shed a different light on earlier elements, and as Marías asserts, function as 'musical motifs' [12 ] that vary each time they resonate. Furthermore, one could analyse the narrator's use of repetition from a Freudian perspective, in which case Juan's compulsion to repeat is rooted in repressed material stemming from childhood (his uncertainty of Ranz's past after overhearing his grandmother saying 'ya llevas dos perdidas, hijo') as well as his animistic and superstitious view of the world. The novel is hence a 'narrativization of the narrator's thoughts', in which his 'psychical reality is foregrounded' and 'overaccentuated' through numerous repetitions. [13 ] The novel could therefore be interpreted as a literary transcription of Juan's innermost thoughts, or as Fornieles states, 'el interior de la mente de Juan Ranz, el espacio que ocupan sus dudas, conjeturas, temores o recuerdos'. [14 ]
Overall, taking into account the above points, repetitions seem to produce a range of effects in the narrative. They provide a unique insight into the psychology of the protagonist, and reflect the non-linear nature of human thought. More importantly, however, they foreshadow the key event of the book- the revelation of Ranz's crime- configure the overriding themes and maintain a coherent structure. Repetitions are therefore indispensable to the novel, since removing them would wholly dilute the significance of the narrative as well as Marías's skill as a writer. As Navarro Gil points out, 'lo más importante en las novelas de Javier Marías no es nunca lo que se cuenta [. ] sino cómo se cuenta', [15 ] and Marías himself has asserted 'El propio hacerse de la novela es lo que me interesa'. [16 ] He is therefore less concerned with the precise content of his work, but rather the way in which the novel unfolds, and how the stylistic and formal elements enhance its effectiveness. Indeed, he maintains that the themes of Corazón tan blanco only became apparent to him through the digressions once he had completed the text. Thus, it is essentially Marías's style of narration, characterised by repetitions and 'errabundia', that facilitates the emergence of a narrative and ultimately contributes to the books' success. To say that there would simply be no narrative without repetitions is therefore a helpful, and entirely true, observation.
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