Inet Om Net Tutorial Homework 2 - Essay for you

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Inet Om Net Tutorial Homework 2

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SNORT_INLINE - The Easy Tutorial

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SNORT_INLINE - The Easy Tutorial - Bridge

Snort_Inline Bridge
Last Change. Apr 26 2007

If you like our tutorials, don't hesitate to support us and visit our sponsors!
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After all our efforts to configure Snort_Inline, we must be careful to put our brand new IPS at the right place in the network.

A Snort IDS just needs to be connected to a switch port where it receives the traffic coming from a mirrored port. See how to configure port mirroring .

For our IPS, the network configuration above cannot be used because Snort_Inline must check the packets before deciding to drop or accept them. It must be placed along the network link we want to analyze and configured as a bridge.
So you must have a minimum of two networks interfaces, three of them is better because you can dedicate a port to the IPS management.


Load the bridge kernel module.


You can watch the logs with the following command:

#tail -f /var/log/syslog

Below is given the log output during the networking service restart.

ubuntu kernel: br0: port 2(eth1) entering disabled state
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 1(eth0) entering disabled state
ubuntu dhclient: receive_packet failed on eth0: Network is down
ubuntu kernel: device eth0 left promiscuous mode
ubuntu kernel: audit(1175176752.661:116): dev=eth0 prom=0 old_prom=256 auid=4294967295
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 1(eth0) entering disabled state
ubuntu kernel: eth1: Setting promiscuous mode.
ubuntu dhclient: receive_packet failed on eth1: Network is down
ubuntu dhclient: receive_packet failed on eth1: Network is down
ubuntu kernel: device eth1 left promiscuous mode
ubuntu kernel: audit(1175176752.669:117): dev=eth1 prom=0 old_prom=256 auid=4294967295
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 2(eth1) entering disabled state
ubuntu kernel: device eth0 entered promiscuous mode
ubuntu kernel: audit(1175176752.741:118): dev=eth0 prom=256 old_prom=0 auid=4294967295
ubuntu kernel: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_UP): eth0: link is not ready
ubuntu kernel: e100: eth0: e100_watchdog: link up, 100Mbps, half-duplex
ubuntu kernel: device eth1 entered promiscuous mode
ubuntu kernel: audit(1175176752.769:119): dev=eth1 prom=256 old_prom=0 auid=4294967295
ubuntu kernel: ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:01:0e.0[A] -> GSI 22 (level, low) -> IRQ 185
ubuntu kernel: eth1: setting full-duplex.
ubuntu kernel: eth1: Setting promiscuous mode.
ubuntu last message repeated 6 times
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 2(eth1) entering learning state
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 1(eth0) entering learning state
ubuntu kernel: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): eth0: link becomes ready
ubuntu kernel: br0: no IPv6 routers present
ubuntu kernel: eth1: no IPv6 routers present
ubuntu kernel: eth0: no IPv6 routers present
ubuntu kernel: br0: topology change detected, propagating
ubuntu kernel: br0: port 2(eth1) entering forwarding state
ubuntu kernel: br0: topology change detected, propagating

The network interfaces statistics (case 2, see above )
The bridge MAC address is the smallest MAC address of its members.

br0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:11:22:33:44
inet addr:192.168.1.22 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::202:55ff:fe13:9d05/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1061 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:878 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:723663 (706.7 KiB) TX bytes:115514 (112.8 KiB)

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:00:11:22:33:44
inet6 addr: fe80::202:55ff:fe13:9d05/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:16738 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:6824 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:10 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:5782167 (5.5 MiB) TX bytes:704700 (688.1 KiB)

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:99:aa:bb:cc:dd
UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:36605 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:1842 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:14
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:9446601 (9.0 MiB) TX bytes:160001 (156.2 KiB)
Interrupt:185 Base address:0x4f80

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr. 1/128 Scope:Host
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:8393 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:8393 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:1077749 (1.0 MiB) TX bytes:1077749 (1.0 MiB)

Use the brctl command to see the bridge members.

bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
br0 8000.000255139d05 no eth1
eth0

Add a cron job to load the bridge kernel module each time your Linux boots.

Other articles

C Networking - C Forum

I've been attempting to do some network programming in c++ but I'm having trouble getting started. So you know where I'm coming from, I'm fairly familiar with network programming with python where the only set up for network programming is putting 'include sockets' at the top of the file. It seems to be a little more complicated in c++.

The set up I have right now is MinGW installed on windows 7 64-bit. I also have Cygwin installed, but I'm not very sure how to use it.

The file I'm trying to compile is:


using these parameters

and I get this error

Clearly something isn't being setup correctly but I don't know what. I tried googling the error but I can't seem to find anyone with a similar problem.

Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Last edited on May 13, 2012 at 10:03am UTC

That could be it but I can't seem to include it. It says it can't find inet.h.

Last edited on May 13, 2012 at 10:04am UTC

I think you're right. I found the inet.h file in the cygwin directory but it can't seem to include the files it needs correctly.

I can include inet.h fine. But inet.h needs to include in.h which is in the netinet directory. I've tried moving the inet.h file to many different directories but it still can't find the in.h file.

I also tried editing the inet.h file to make it include the in.h file using absolute referencing but then I get this error which is similar except for the last part:


The difference there is that it says "cygwin/in.h" but that's not where the file is. It's in C:/cygwin/usr/include/netinet/ and that's where I said to include to.


Edit: I realized that the error is coming from the in.h file. I looked in the in.h file and found "#ifndef _CYGWIN_IN_H" to be the source of the error but I have no idea how to fix that.

Last edited on May 12, 2012 at 2:14am UTC

CBT Nuggets - COMPTIA INET PLUS TUTORIAL-kEISO


CBT Nuggets - COMPTIA INET PLUS TUTORIAL-kEISO
Released: 2013.11.22 | Author: Michael Shannon | Size: 1.83 GB
Genre(s): E-Learning

How do common networking technologies like servers, routers and switches support internet functionality? How do server-side applications work? What goes into supporting an e-commerce solution?
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Java Network Tutorial - Java Datagram Socket Channels

Java Network Tutorial - Java Datagram Socket Channels

java.nio.channels.DatagramChannel class represents a datagram channel. By default, it is blocking. To make it non-blocking, use the configureBlocking(false) method.

To create a DatagramChannel. invoke one of its open() static methods.

To use it for IP multicasting, to specify the address type of the multicast group as an argument to its open() method.

The open() method creates a DatagramChannel object, which is not connected.

The following code shows how to create an Echo Server Based on the Datagram Channel.

The code above generates the following result.

The following code creates a Client Program Based on the Datagram Channel.

The code above generates the following result.

Listing the Available Network Interface on a Machine

The code above generates the following result.

The following code A DatagramChannel-Based Multicast Client Program

The code above generates the following result.

The following code shows how to create a DatagramChannel-Based Multicast Program That Sends a Message to a Multicast Group.

The code above generates the following result.

  • « Previous

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PHP: inet_ntop

For people who need this function but don't have it, I could write a function which should give almost the same result.

<?php
function my_inet_ntop ( $ip ) <
if ( strlen ( $ip )== 4 ) <
// ipv4
list(, $ip )= unpack ( 'N'. $ip );
$ip = long2ip ( $ip );
> elseif( strlen ( $ip )== 16 ) <
// ipv6
$ip = bin2hex ( $ip );
$ip = substr ( chunk_split ( $ip. 4. ':' ), 0 ,- 1 );
$ip = explode ( ':'. $ip );
$res = '' ;
foreach( $ip as $seg ) <
while( $seg < 0 >== '0' ) $seg = substr ( $seg. 1 );
if ( $seg != '' ) <
$res .=( $res == ''. ''. ':' ). $seg ;
> else <
if ( strpos ( $res. '::' )=== false ) <
if ( substr ( $res ,- 1 )== ':' ) continue;
$res .= ':' ;
continue;
>
$res .=( $res == ''. ''. ':' ). '0' ;
>
>
$ip = $res ;
>
return $ip ;
>
?>

I followed IPv6 reprenstation rules :
- A series of "0"s in a 16bit block can by represented by "0".
- A series of blocks containing only "0"s can be suppressed and represented by "::" (this can be done only once)

Example:
<?php
$packed = str_repeat ( chr ( 0 ), 15 ). chr ( 1 );
$expanded = my_inet_ntop ( $packed );

/* Outputs. 1 */
echo $expanded ;
?>

I checked in CVS (2005-04-25) and didn't find the inet_ntop function (I really needed to handle IPv6) so I implemented it myself.

PHP's inet_ntop function is not compatible with the binary representation used by MySQL's INET6_ATON function, assuming you are using the recommended method of storing both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in a VARBINARY(16) field. You need to convert it like this:

/**
* Convert a MySQL binary v4 (4-byte) or v6 (16-byte) IP address to a printable string.
* @param string $ip A binary string containing an IP address, as returned from MySQL's INET6_ATON function
* @return string Empty if not valid.
*/
function inet6_ntop($ip) <
$l = strlen($ip);
if ($l == 4 or $l == 16) <
return inet_ntop(pack('A'. $l, $ip));
>
return '';
>

You don't need a function going the other way because MySQL's INET6_NTOA is already compatible with PHP's inet_pton function.